Photos with this report (click to enlarge)
A report of our stay as volunteer naturalist guides at Cristalino Jungle Lodge
During May, June, and July, we had the privilege of living at Cristalino Jungle Lodge and guiding guests on their vacations to the Amazon. Our visit was well-timed for us; at the beginning of our stay the lodge had fewer visitors and we had much time to ourselves to explore and study. From mid-June until the end of our stay we were quite busy working with guests, especially in July, when we worked almost without a break.
For most of our stay, the weather was dry, and we saw river levels drop at least one meter before we left. We also saw the forest get progressively drier, most notably in the vicinity of the Saleiro. Walking was easy and the trails were rarely wet. The only exception was the Manakin trail, which was still flooded when we explored it in early June.
We visited most of the trails regularly, and Rochas, Serra, Castanheira, and Taboca more than the rest. In general, the best birding at any time of day was on the Taboca and Cacau trails; these trails seemed to have the best diversity of species in the mixed flocks, and many birds were found in the lower levels of the forest. One place where canopy flocks were easier to observe was the first section of the Teles Pires trail, as the canopy is also low there, and the flocks pass closer to the ground. We usually only visited the Kawalli trail for specialties like Bronzy Jacamar and Flame-crested Manakin. The Castanheira trail at times had good flocks, and species like Pavonine Quetzal and Guianan Gnatcatcher are more common here. However, the canopy is very high, and so birding is often difficult. This might be an excellent site for a second canopy tower! The Haffer trail was disappointing as a birding site, but was our only location for dusky titi and Crested Eagle sightings. We spent very little time on the Manakin trail, and never made it past the lagoon. We also never walked the full Tapiri trail between Castanheira and Serra. These trails, along with the second half of the Teles Pires trail, are not often visited, and they are probably the best places to look for new and/or rare birds. In particular, the Tapiri might be a good place to search for Rusty-breasted Nunlet. The Serra and the tower made for good birding early in the morning, but were usually very quiet in the midday heat.
The main component of this report is a detailed, annotated record of the bird species we observed during our stay, though we have also included information on mammals. We hope the report will proved useful to visiting birders and naturalists, both guests and volunteers in residence.
Key to place names and terms
In discussions of many species we have described the locations of sightings, territories, etc. Most instances are straightforward; a few warrant additional explanation:
- The Teles Pires trail refers to the trail that has been called the “New Trail” in past reports.
“The TP” means the Rio Teles Pires.
- The “hotel fragment” refers to the forest at the Floresta Amazonica Hotel. Quite a few species are common both at Cristalino and near Alta Floresta, but for the most part, we only mentioned the hotel under those species for which it was a significant location.
- The “Alta Floresta road” refers to the road between Alta Floresta and the boat launch on the TP.
- Terra firme refers to forest that is not regularly flooded.
- Várzea refers to forest that is seasonally flooded by a silty, mineral-rich whitewater river, such as the forest that flanks the TP.
- Igapó refers to forest that is seasonally flooded by clear water, such as that along the Cristalino and near the Saleiro.
- “Riverine forest” refers to any forest at the immediate edge of the TP or the Cristalino, and somewhat mature forest found on older river islands.
- Buritizal refers to a stand of Mauritia (moriche) palms; one such grove is found on the Alta Floresta road.
Our full bird and mammal lists are below.
Reptiles and Amphibians
An excellent treatment of the herpetofauna of the Cristalino area is available online at the lodge website. We had comparitively few observations of reptiles and amphibians, and therefore have little to add. We found the Cristalino to be an easy place to see both Spectacled Caiman (Caiman ) and Dwarf Caiman at night with the use of a bright spotlight. We also found basking anacondas (Eunectes murinus) on a few occasions, always resting on vegetation overhanging the water at the river’s banks. During the first two weeks of our stay, one individual of about 6m length used the same spot upstream on most sunny mornings. Aside from the occasional anaconda, we encountered relatively few snakes during our stay, and we saw no venomous snakes at all, though a Bushmaster (Lachesis muta) was found by Fabiano Oliveira on the Saleiro loop in June. Snakes observed by us included: Cat-eyed Snake, Rainbow Boa, The most interesting frog we encountered was the supposedly undescribed poison dart frog that lives in the humid forest surrounding the Serra.
Butterfly diversity was spectacular throughout our stay, with prime time for observation being late morning. The Saleiro and the riverbanks were the best areas for easy viewing since the exposed soil and regular sunlight at these locations tended to attract many butterflies. Using bait to attract butterflies will be very useful if lepidoptery is your main focus at Cristalino.
Annotated list of bird species recorded
The following is a list of all the approximately 400 bird species we recorded during our stay. For taxonomy and nomenclature, we tried to be consistent with the work of the AOU’s South American Checklist Committee. In many cases we have used trinomials to describe a species, especially where intra-specific variation is noteworthy and/or where the local race represents a potential future split.
Tinamus major / Great Tinamou – occasionally encountered in igapó.
Crypturellus undulatus / Undulated Tinamou – heard regularly from the TP at dusk.
Crypturellus cinereus / Cinereous Tinamou – heard regularly from many trails; seems to favor igapó.
Crypturellus soui / Little Tinamou – heard in the hotel fragment.
Crypturellus obsoletus / Brown Tinamou – heard in the hotel fragment.
Crypturellus variegatus / Variegated Tinamou – heard regularly in terra firme.
Crypturellus strigulosus / Brazilian Tinamou – heard regularly in terra firme.
Phalacrocorax brasilianus / Neotropical Cormorant – occasionally seen on the Cristalino and the TP, more frequently after mid-June.
Anhinga anhinga / Anhinga – common along the Cristalino.
Ardea cocoi / Cocoi Heron – occasionally seen along the Cristalino and the TP.
Egretta alba / Great Egret – one sighting at the mouth of the Cristalino, also regularly seen in ponds along the Alta Floresta road.
Egretta thula / Snowy Egret – seen regularly along the Alta Floresta road.
Butorides striatus / Striated Heron – fairly common along the Cristalino.
Bubulcus ibis / Cattle Egret – common in more open habitats toward Alta Floresta. Sometimes hundreds of birds could be seen flying down the TP to a roost at dusk.
Pilherodius pileatus / Capped Heron – common along the Cristalino.
Tigrissoma lineatum / Rufescent Tiger-heron – fairly common along the Cristalino; an imm. also encountered along the Saleiro stream in early July.
Zebrilus undulatus / Zigzag Heron – heard to call once at dusk in response to playback, upstream on the Cristalino.
Cochlearius cochlearius / Boat-billed Heron – spotlighted below the lodge on the Cristalino after dark on 7/26.
Mycteria americana / American Wood Stork – regularly seen soaring overhead at Cristalino, becoming more common in July; a large roost on Isla Ariosto.
Mesembrinibis cayennensis / Green Ibis – not uncommon along the Cristalino, usually encountered in singles or pairs.
Sarcoramphus papa / King Vulture – regularly seen soaring overhead at Cristalino.
Coragyps atratus / Black Vulture – common.
Cathartes melambrotos / Greater Yellow-headed Vulture – common at Cristalino.
Cathartes aura / Turkey Vulture – Recorded in Alta Floresta on 6/21.
Dendrocygna autumnalis / Black-bellied Whistling-duck – Groups of 20-40 seen on a few occasions flying along the TP.
Dendrocygna viduata / White-faced Whistling-duck – a pair with young seen in a pond along the Alta Floresta road, 6/15.
Cairina moschata / Muscovy Duck - a few small groups seen in flight from the Cristalino in late May; what appeared to be a family group was encountered upstream on 7/4; a single downstream on 7/26.
Gampsonyx swainsonii / Pearl Kite – seen only along the Alta Floresta road.
Elanoides forficatus / Swallow-tailed Kite – perhaps the most common raptor in the area, seen most days, often in small groups.
Elanus leucurus / White-tailed Kite – a pair seen from the Alta Floresta road 6/20.
Leptodon cayanensis / Gray-headed Kite – about four sightings at Cristalino, including a bird doing a flight display seen from the tower in early June.
Chondrohierax uncinatus / Hook-billed Kite – uncommon, seen three times from the Serra, once at Lagoa Cigana.
Harpagus bidentatus / Double-toothed Kite – fairly common and widespread; one individual observed following a foraging troop of brown capuchins near the tower on 7/26.
Ictinea plumbea / Plumbeous Kite – not seen until mid-July, and regularly thereafter.
Rostrhamus sociabilis / Snail Kite – only seen along the Alta Floresta road.
Accipiter bicolor / Bicolored Hawk – seen a few times flying across the Cristalino.
Accipiter poliogaster / Gray-bellied Goshawk – one flyover from the lodge clearing 6/10.
Buteo magnirostris / Roadside Hawk – seen along the road from Alta Floresta.
Buteo brachyurus / Short-tailed Hawk – widespread and not uncommon, but only seen in flight, both dark and light morphs.
Leucopternis kuhli / White-browed Hawk – seen from the canopy tower four times.
Leucopternis albicollis / White Hawk – widespread and not uncommon; a pair seemed resident at the Serra, seen carrying nest material on 7/22.
Buteogallus urubitinga / Great Black-Hawk – fairly common along the Cristalino.
Busarellus nigricollis / Black-collared Hawk – one sighting on the Cristalino, between Serra and Kawalli 7/15.
Morphnus guianensis / Crested Eagle – one sighting on the Haffer 6/30.
Harpia harpyja / Harpy Eagle – the young bird in the hotel fragment fledged around the first week of July, but was still observable at the nest in the late afternoon through the end of the month.
Spizaetus ornatus / Ornate Hawk-eagle – one sighting at the Serra 7/21.
Spizaetus tyrannus / Black Hawk-eagle – seen once from the Serra and once at the hotel.
Herpetotheres cachinnans / Laughing Falcon – heard regularly but sighted only sporadically along the Cristalino and once at the Secret Garden.
Micrastur semitorquatus / Collared Forest-falcon – heard at the hotel fragment.
Micrastur mirandoleii / Slaty-backed Forest-falcon – heard calling at Cristalino in mid June.
Micrastur ruficollis / Barred Forest-falcon - heard at the hotel fragment.
Micrastur mintoni / Cryptic Forest-Falcon – heard regularly at Cristalino; seen very infrequently, once attending an antswarm on the Taboca.
Daptrius ater / Black Caracara – fairly common along the river, less so in July.
Daptrius americanus / Red-throated Caracara – very noisy and conspicuous; most common in early June.
Caracara plancus / Southern Caracara – seen along the Alta Floresta road and at the hotel.
Falco rufigularis / Bat Falcon – widespread and fairly common; one pair seen regularly upriver from the lodge and another pair near the mouth of the Cristalino; in June a bird was observed to catch a fish on the Teles Pires.
Falco sparverius / American Kestrel – not uncommon in open habitat around Alta Floresta.
Penelope jacquacu / Spix's Guan – common around Cristalino, feeding heavily on Cecropia fruits in May and June.
Pipile cujubi / Red-throated Piping-guan – fairly common, regularly seen from the river.
Mitu tuberosa / Razor-billed Curassow – not uncommon, regularly seen from the river, perhaps becoming more conspicuous in July.
Crax faciolata / Bare-faced Curassow – less common than the previous species, but a pair in residence near the lodge was often seen strolling through the clearings at any time of day.
Opisthocomus hoazin / Hoatzin – present at Lagoa Cigana; shy and seen poorly on the one visit.
Odontophorus gujanensis / Marbled Wood-Quail – calling somewhat regularly at dusk, but rarely seen.
Aramus guarauna / Limpkin – a single observed on the Cristalino below the lodge on 7/26, perhaps one of very few records for the lodge area; also seen along the Alta Floresta road.
Aramides cajaneus / Gray necked Wood-rail - heard at dusk 6/2 from the lodge; one seen upriver on the Cristalino 7/3.
Porphyrula martinica / Purple Gallinule – seen from the Alta Floresta road on 5/24.
Psophia viridis dextralis / Dark-winged Trumpeter – one lone individual seen several times in the hotel fragment at the same spot on the trail to the Harpy Eagle observation point; the origin of this bird is probably questionable. Also a group of around 10 birds seen on the Taboca 7/27.
Eurypyga helias / Sunbittern – fairly common along the Cristalino, becoming more conspicuous as water levels dropped.
Jacana jacana / Wattled Jaçana – observed at the hotel, at the Mauritia palm swamp, and at other ponds along the road from Alta Floresta.
Vanellus chilensis / Southern Lapwing – common in open habitat.
Hoploxypterus cayanus / Pied Lapwing – a pair arrived on Isla Ariosto in mid-June and set up a territory on the newly exposed sandy beach.
Phaetusa simplex / Large-billed Tern – one sighting, a pair on the TP 6/14.
Columba cayennensis / Pale-vented Pigeon – seen only from the TP.
Columba subvinacea / Ruddy Pigeon – fairly common by voice, most often observed from the Cristalino, sometimes from the tower.
Columba plumbea / Plumbeous Pigeon – fairly common by voice, seen regularly at the Saleiro.
Columba speciosa / Scaled Pigeon – seen at Lagoa Cigana.
Columbina talpacoti / Ruddy Ground-Dove – fairly common in open habitat.
Claravis pretiosa / Blue Ground-Dove – not uncommon; most records from the Serra, the Saleiro, and the boat dock area. Calling throughout our stay
Leptotila verreauxi / White-tipped Dove – present in second growth and degraded habitat; seen at the hotel.
Leptotila rufaxilla / Gray-fronted Dove – present in forested habitat; seen and heard occaisionally along the Cristalino.
Geotrygon montana / Ruddy Quail-Dove – not seen until 7/27 near the Rochas trail. Recent research demonstrates that this species undertakes seasonal migration; it is likely not present at Cristalino during most of the dry season.
Geotrigon violacea / Violaceous Quail-Dove – a bird seen flying across the Cristalino upstream of the lodge, also seen near the saleiro in igapó on 6/24. Was not vocal during our stay.
Ara ararauna / Blue-and-yellow Macaw – fairly common, though usually seen in smaller groups than the other macaws.
Ara macao / Scarlet Macaw – common.
Ara chloroptera / Red-and-green Macaw – the least common Ara.
Ara severa / Chestnut-fronted Macaw – common.
Ara manilata / Red-bellied Macaw – uncommon and most reliably seen at the Mauritia palm swamp at dusk.
Aratinga leucopthalmus / White-eyed Parakeet – commonly seen flying high overhead; a group fed daily on the Xanthoxylem fruits right next to the middle platform of the tower in late July.
Pyrrhura rhodogaster / Crimson-bellied Parakeet – fairly common at the hotel; also seen regularly at the Saleiro and occasionally along the Cristalino.
Pyrrhura picta microtera / Painted Parakeet – fairly common around Cristalino; encountered on every visit to the Serra - perhaps both "Madeira" (snethlageae) and "Hellmayr's" (amazonum) races are present here.
Brotogeris chrysopterus / Golden-winged Parakeet – fairly common.
Forpus sclateri / Dusky-billed Parrotlet – not recorded until 6/19; seen daily thereafter near the boat dock, often on the ground eating sand.
Pionites leucogaster / White-bellied Parrot – not uncommon; seen regularly from the tower.
Pionopsitta barrabandi / Orange-cheeked Parrot – scarce; a pair seen in the lodge clearing on a few mornings in mid June and then again on 7/20.
Pionus menstruus / Blue-headed Parrot – common.
Amazona ochrocephala / Yellow-crowned Parrot – fairly common; a large group of these birds roosted together in the vicinity of the Haffer trail.
Amazona farinosa / Mealy Parrot – common at the hotel and also seen from the tower at Cristalino, when a group of about 10 flew by very close on 7/20.
Amazona kawalli / Kawall's Parrot – uncommon at Cristalino, most often seen from the tower.
Deroptyus accipitrinus fuscifrons / Red-fan Parrot – seen regularly in May and June, more sporadically in July. A pair came in to a roost very near the tower every afternoon, but they sometimes arrived silently and were easy to miss.
Piaya cayana / Squirrel Cuckoo –fairly common.
Piaya melanogaster / Black-bellied Cuckoo – not uncommon in terra firme; often seen well from the tower.
Piaya minuta / Little Cuckoo – seemingly scarce along the Cristalino.
Crotophaga major / Greater Ani – seen once from the Cristalino in July.
Crotophaga ani / Smooth-billed Ani – common in open habitat and also seen at the boat dock at Cristalino.
Dromococcyx pavoninus / Pavonine Cuckoo – heard on 7/26 before dawn on the right side of the Saleiro loop.
Guira guira / Guira Cuckoo – seen at the hotel and along the road from Alta Floresta.
Otus watsonii usta / Tawny-bellied Screech-Owl – widespread and fairly common in forest; quite difficult to see.
Lophostrix cristata / Crested Owl – regularly heard on the trails at Cristalino and also at the hotel.
Pulsatrix perspicillata / Spectacled Owl – heard calling once in early June near the lodge clearing; a bird flushed during the day was seen on the Cacau on 6/19.
Glaucidium hardyi / Amazonian Pygmy-Owl – not uncommon in forest but difficult to see. One bird was observed entering a cavity in the large snag near the tower on 6/27.
Athene cunicularia / Burrowing Owl – fairly common in cleared fields.
Ciccaba huhula / Black-banded Owl – heard calling on the new Serra trail before dawn, 6/24.
Nyctibius grandis / Great Potoo – seen on almost every spotlighting trip between the lodge and the TP; much harder to see upstream on the Cristalino. Also heard from the Saleiro and at the hotel. A day-roosting bird was visible from the top platform of the tower in late July.
Nyctibius aethereus / Long-tailed Potoo – one bird discovered in the hotel fragment by Brad Davis in June, perhaps the first record for the Southern Amazon; seen on 6/21.
Lurocalis semitorquatus / Short-tailed Nighthawk – seen regularly over the river and lodge clearings at dusk.
Nyctidromus albicollis / Pauraque – calling regularly around the lodge during our stay.
Nyctiphrynus ocellatus / Ocellated Poorwill – seemingly common in the forest around the lodge; two nests found in July, one on the Taboca, one on the Teles Pires trail.
Caprimulgus nigrescens / Blackish Nightjar – common on the Serra, at the Secret Garden, and around the lodge clearings. Calling regularly during our stay; a nest found on the Serra 7/22. Easily observed on the bungalow roofs during the day.
Hydropsalis climacocerca / Ladder-tailed Nightjar – seen regularly along the river, sometimes by spotlight, sometimes when flushed during the day.
Chaetura cinereiventris / Gray-rumped Swift – seemingly not uncommon but difficult to identify.
Chaetura egregia / Pale-rumped Swift – the most commonly observed swift, probably because it is also the easiest to identify.
Chaetura viridipennis / Amazonian Swift – seemingly uncommon. The taxon viridipennis is sometimes considered a race of Chapman’s Swift, Chaetura chapmani.
Chaetura brachyura / Short-tailed Swift – seemingly uncommon.
Tachornis squamata / Fork-tailed Palm-Swift – only observed at the buritizal.
Panyptila cayennensis / Lesser Swallow-tailed Swift – one sighting, over the fazenda track on 6/15.
Glaucis hirsuta / Rufous-breasted Hermit – one sighting in igapó near the Saleiro, 6/9.
Phaethornis hispidus / White-bearded Hermit – seemingly uncommon, but large Phaethornis hermits at Cristalino were rarely seen well enouch to identify.
Phaethornis bourcieri / Straight-billed Hermit – one definite sighting 7/25 on the Cacau.
Phaethornis ruber / Reddish Hermit – a lek in the hotel fragment; rarely identified positively at Cristalino; it has been proposed in past reports that some small Phaethornis hermits at Cristalino perhaps represent an undescribed species.
Campylopterus largipennis / Gray-breasted Sabrewing – not uncommon in forest understory at Cristalino.
Florisuga mellivora / White-necked Jacobin – not uncommon in canopy at Cristalino,
Anthracothorax nigricollis / Black-throated Mango – common at forest edge and on the Serra at Cristalino, many nests found throughout our stay.
Avocettula recurvirostris / Fiery-tailed Awlbill – one definite sighting, of a male, 7/17 on the Serra with Sam Woods; a probable female of this species seen on 7/21, also on the Serra.
Popelairia langsdorffi / Black-bellied Thorntail – two sightings in July of this canopy denizen, one upstream on the Cristalino, one from the tower.
Thalurania furcata / Fork-tailed Woodnymph – not uncommon in forest at Cristalino.
Hylocharis sapphirina / Rufous-throated Sapphire – not uncommon in deciduous forest on the Serra and at the Secret Garden.
Hylocharis cayanus / White-chinned Sapphire – seemingly not uncommon. Males were regularly encountered singing from perches in small forest clearings, at least at the beginning and at the end of our stay. Also seen from the Cristalino.
Amazilia versicolor / Versicolored Emerald – seemingly fairly common at times, though not regularly recorded throughout our stay.
Heliothryx aurita / Black-eared Fairy – fairly common, most often seen in canopy.
Heliomaster longirostris / Long-billed Starthroat – not uncommon at forest edge.
Calliphlox amethystina / Amethyst Woodstar - fairly common in open habitat at Cristalino, such as on the Serra and at river margins.
Pharomachrus pavoninus / Pavonine Quetzal – first heard calling and then seen on 7/1 on the Castanheira trail.
Trogon melanurus / Black-tailed Trogon – fairly common in a variety of forested habitats; often encountered at forest edge.
Trogon viridis / White-tailed Trogon – fairly common in a variety of forest habitats; often encountered at forest edge, and seemingly overlapping broadly with the previous species.
Trogon collaris / Collared Trogon – fairly common, often encountered in lower levels of varzea. Vocalization seemed to pick up in July.
Trogon rufus / Black-throated Trogon – uncommon in terra firme understory.
Trogon curucui / Blue-crowned Trogon – perhaps uncommon in canopy of várzea and on the Serra.
Trogon violaceus / Violaceous Trogon – fairly common in canopy and at forest edge.
Ceryle torquata / Ringed Kingfisher – common.
Chloroceryle amazona / Amazon Kingfisher – common; the highest-density kingfisher along the Cristalino.
Chloroceryle americana / Green Kingfisher – less common than the previous two species; recorded weekly.
Chloroceryle inda / Green-and-rufous Kingfisher – also recorded weekly.
Chloroceryle aenea / American Pygmy-Kingfisher – seemingly uncommon but inconspicuous and easily missed.
Electron platyrhynchum / Broad-billed Motmot – common and often heard calling around dawn; seems to favor igapó.
Momotus momota / Blue-crowned Motmot – common and often heard calling around dawn and dusk; seems to favor terra firme; observed most often in the vicinity of the tower and on the Saleiro loop.
Brachygalbus lugubris melanosterna / Brown Jacamar – a small (family?) group observed regularly upstream on the Cristalino between Castanheira and Limao. The local race melanosterna could someday be elevated to full-species status.
Galbula cyanicollis / Blue-necked Jacamar – seemingly not uncommon but definitely inconspicous, perhaps favoring terra firme.
Galbula dea / Paradise Jacamar – fairly common in canopy and at forest edge. Often seen on the Serra, from the tower, and along the Cristalino.
Galbula ruficauda / Rufous-tailed Jacamar – seen regularly along river edge and on islands. Pairs present at the boat dock and on Isla Aristo were fairly reliable.
Galbula leucogastra / Bronzy Jacamar – a pair resident in floodplain forest a couple hundred meters up from the bottom of the Kawalli trail.
Jacamerops aurea ana / Great Jacamar – one sighting 5/24 in the bungalow clearing.
Notharchus hyperrhynchus / White-necked Puffbird – not uncommon in canopy and along forest edge; seen regularly from the tower and also recorded from the Serra. How (if) this species and the next differ in habitat preference is unclear.
Notharchus ordii / Brown-banded Puffbird – not uncommon in canopy and along forest edge; recorded from the tower, from the Serra, at the Secret Garden, along the Cristalino, and on the Taboca and Cajá trails.
Notharchus tectus / Pied Puffbird – probably fairly common but rather inconspicuous; four sightings from the Serra include a pair that appeared to be excavating a nest in an arboreal termitarium on 7/22.
Bucco capensis / Collared Puffbird – only one sighting, 7/26 near the start of the Saleiro loop; its pre-dawn calling period makes this species very easy to miss.
Bucco tamatia / Spotted Puffbird – seemingly scarce; one sighting on the Serra with on 6/29.
Nystalus striolatus / Striolated Puffbird – not uncommon in canopy and along forest edge; several sightings from the tower and a few other records from the Serra and along the Cristalino. Sometimes heard calling at dawn from the lodge clearing.
Malacoptila rufa / Rufous-necked Puffbird – seemingly uncommon and inconspicuous in terra firme understory. Seen in the hotel fragment on the trail to the Harpy Eagle observation point, and also on the Saleiro loop.
Nonnula rubecula / Rusty-breasted Nunlet – one sighting of a pair seen very well on the Tapiri trail below the new Serra loop, 7/6.
Monasa nigrifrons / Black-fronted Nunbird – common at forest edge and along the Cristalino.
Monasa morphoeus / White-fronted Nunbird – fairly common in canopy of forest interior; occasionally appeared to be attending antswarms.
Chelidoptera tenebrosa / Swallow-winged Puffbird – one of the most common and conspicuous birds at Cristalino, favoring canopy and forest edge; always present in the lodge clearing and around the boat dock.
Capito dayi / Black-girdled Barbet – not uncommon in forest canopy (prefers terra firme?) but perhaps occurring at low density; often observed from the canopy tower; regularly accompanies mixed flocks.
Pteroglossus castanotis / Chestnut-eared Araçari – widespread but rather uncommon; more sightings from the hotel fragment than Cristalino.
Pteroglossus inscriptus / Lettered Araçari – more common that the previous species and sometimes found with other Pteroglossus.
Pteroglossus bitorquatus / Red-necked Araçari – perhaps the most common Pteroglossus at Cristalino.
Pteroglossus beauharnaesii / Curl-crested Araçari - fairly common at Cristalino.
Pteroglossus aracari / Black-necked Araçari – one sighting from the tower 6/28.
Selenidera gouldii / Gould's Toucanet – not uncommon by voice, but often difficult to see.
Ramphastos vitallinus culminatus / Channel-billed Toucan – fairly common, most often seen from the tower.
Ramphastos tucanus cuvieri / White-throated Toucan - fairly common, most often seen from the tower.
Picumnus aurifrons / Bar-breasted Piculet – fairly common component of canopy mixed flocks.
Piculus flavigula / Yellow-throated Woodpecker – seemingly fairly common; seen most regularly in the vicinity of the tower, usually in middle levels of forest, sometimes with mixed flocks.
Piculus chrysochloros / Golden-green Woodpecker – a rather scarce inhabitant of várzea, seen only on Kawalli and near the Castanheira boat landing.
Celeus elegans / Chestnut Woodpecker – one sighting of a bird eating ants in the canopy of a Cecropia, 6/13 near the Figuera – Taboca junction.
Celeus grammicus / Scaly-breasted Woodpecker – seemingly rather uncommon by voice; only seen twice, 6/22 on Taboca and 7/4 from the tower.
Celeus flavus / Cream-colored Woodpecker – seemingly uncommon; recorded only twice, 6/28 upstream on the Cristalino and 7/4 on Cajá.
Celeus torquatus / Ringed Woodpecker – seen once, 6/3 near the Saleiro. The call of this species is often imitated by Lawrence’s Thrush and so an accurate estimate of abundance is difficult. Probably scarce.
Dryocopus lineatus / Lineated Woodpecker – seemingly uncommon resident of open areas and forest edge. A fledgling was observed exiting a nest cavity beside the Cristalino upstream of the lodge on 7/10.
Melanerpes cruentatus / Yellow-tufted Woodpecker – common at the hotel fragment but scarce at Cristalino where only observed once, 7/16 from the river.
Veniliornis affinis / Red-stained Woodpecker – fairly common and widespread, sometimes accompanies flocks.
Veniliornis passerinus / Little Woodpecker – one sighting, 6/25 in the bungalow clearing.
Campephilus melanoleucos / Crimson-crested Woodpecker – widespread but rather uncommon; seems more apt to visit forest edge than the next species.
Campephilus rubricollis / Red-necked Woodpecker – widespread and more common than the previous species.
Dendrocincla fuliginosa / Plain-brown Woodcreeper – seemingly uncommon, but probably overlooked; seen both with and away from ants.
Dendrocincla merula / White-chinned Woodcreeper – only a few sightings, all at ant swarms.
Deconychura longicauda / Long-tailed Woodcreeper – uncommon; can be heard at dusk from the tower and on Saleiro loop.
Deconychura stictolaema / Spot-throated Woodcreeper – scarce; one sighting 6/23 on Teles Pires trail.
Sittasomus griseicapillus / Olivaceous Woodcreeper – common, often with mixed flocks.
Glyphorynchus spirurus / Wedge-billed Woodcreeper – fairly common, often with mixed flocks.
Nasica longirostris / Long-billed Woodcreeper – uncommon in igapó; occasionally heard from the lodge clearing.
Dendrexetastes rufigula moniliger / Cinnamon-throated Woodcreeper – common in the hotel fragment, uncommon at Cristalino; seems to prefer canopy.
Xiphocolaptes promeropirhynchus paraensis / Strong-billed Woodcreeper – fairly common, often in lower level mixed flocks.
Dendrocolaptes certhia concolor / Amazonian Barred-Woodcreeper – not uncommon by voice (heard almost every morning before dawn from the lodge) but seen only a few times.
Dendrocolaptes picumnus / Black-banded Woodcreeper – one sighting, 7/20, from the tower.
Xiphorhynchus picus rufescens or kienerii / Straight-billed Woodcreeper – seemingly uncommon resident of várzea; perhaps overlooked.
Xiphorhynchus obsoletus / Striped Woodcreeper – seemingly uncommon resident of várzea.
Xiphorhynchus elegans / Elegant Woodcreeper – fairly common component of lower level mixed flocks; rarelys seen alone. Did not seem to be very vocal during our stay.
Xiphorhynchus guttatus eytoni / Lafresnaye’s Woodcreeper – fairly common, and the most vocal woodcreeper at Cristalino. Note that the local race eytoni (“Dusky-billed Woodcreeper”) is a potential future split.
Campylorhamphus procurvoides multistriatus / Curve-billed Scythebill – not uncommon; almost always seen in mixed flocks. Note that the song of this race is quite atypical for a Campylorhamphus.
Lepidocolaptes albolineatus madeirae / Lineated Woodcreeper – probably not uncommon in mixed flocks, but seldom observed due to its preference for canopy. Seen a few times foraging in the open dry trees on the Serra.
Synallaxis rutilans / Ruddy Spinetail – only detected on Castanheira and Cacau; probably overlooked elsewhere.
Synallaxis cherriei / Chestnut-throated Spinetail – one sighting, 7/16, of a vocalizing individual on the Taboca.
Cranioleuca gutturata / Speckled Spinetail – seen twice, once by the boat dock almost at water level, once in a mixed flock near the river at the Castanheira landing.
Cranioleuca vulpina / Rusty-backed Spinetail – common at Lagoa Cigana; also present on Ariosto Island.
Berlepschia rikeri / Point-tailed Palmcreeper –present in the buritizal (moriche palm swamp) but generally unresponsive to playback.
Hyloctistes s. subulatus / Striped Woodhaunter – just a few sightings; there seems to be a territory on the right side of the Saleiro loop. The local (nominate) race could be split from trans-Andean populations.
Ancistrops strigilatus / Chestnut-winged Hookbill – fairly common in canopy mixed flocks.
Philydor erythrocercus lira / Rufous-rumped Foliage-gleaner – common component of canopy mixed flocks.
Phylidor erythropterus / Chestnut-winged Foliage-gleaner – only recorded in canopy flocks on Castanheira; almost certainly overlooked elsewhere.
Phylidor ruficaudatus / Rufous-tailed Foliage-gleaner – less common than Rufous-rumped Foliage-gleaner but occasionally found in the same flock; the two species seem to overlap broadly.
Automolus paraensis / Pará Foliage-gleaner – seemingly scarce; definitely observed only on Cacau.
Automolus ochrolaemus / Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner – fairly common in mixed flocks; the most common foliage-gleaner.
Automolus rufipileatus / Chestnut-crowned Foliage-gleaner – widespread but uncommon on most trails.
Automolus dorsalis / Dusky-cheeked Foliage-gleaner - scarce; only recorded on Cacau and Taboca in Guadua bamboo.
Xenops rutilans purusianus or chapadensis / Streaked Xenops – a pair observed 7/22 on the Serra. The local race is likely restricted to deciduous forest such as that found on the Serra.
Xenops minutus / Plain Xenops – fairly common in lower level mixed flocks in terra firme.
Sclerurus rufigularis rufigularis / Short-billed Leaftosser – two sightings from late June, on Taboca and the Saleiro loop.
Cymbilaimus lineatus / Fasciated Antshrike – fairly common but inconspicuous; with mixed flocks or without, these birds are most often found in arboreal vine tangles.
Sakesphorus luctousus / Glossy Antshrike –– fairly common but restricted to forested riverbanks and islands.
Thamnophilus palliatus palliatus / Chestnut-backed Antshrike – widespread but uncommon; present in larger stands of Guadua bamboo.
Thamnophilus schistaceus / Plain-winged Antshrike – widespread and not uncommon; seldom seen in mixed flocks.
Thamnophilus stictocephalus / Natterer's Slaty-Antshrike – only detected in the humid evergreen forest surrounding the Serra during our stay.
Thamnophilus amazonicus obscurus / Amazonian Antshrike – only observed on the Taboca; probably overlooked elsewhere. Did not seem to be vocal during our stay.
Thamnophilus aethiops atriceps / White-shouldered Antshrike – only recorded from the Cacau and Teles Pires trails.
Pygiptila stellaris / Spot-winged Antshrike – fairly common component of mixed flocks at all levels.
Thamnomanes saturninus / Saturnine Antshrike – uncommon, with territitories found near the Saleiro, the Caja-Taboca connector, and the Taboca stream.
Thamnomanes caesius / Cinereous Antshrike – common leader of mixed species foraging flocks.
Myrmotherula brachyura / Pygmy Antwren – common canopy species; best observed from tower.
Myrmotherula sclateri / Sclater's Antwren – seemingly uncommon, but probably overlooked; only seen well on Serra in mixed flocks at edge of humid forest.
Myrmotherula multostriata / Amazonian Antwren – common in riverine forest; a pair began construction of a nest over the dock in July – abandoned?
Myrmotherula hauxwelli / Plain-throated Antwren – common understory species, rarely found with mixed flocks.
Myrmotherula leucophthalma sordida / White-eyed Antwren – fairly common in mixed flocks.
Myrmotherula ornata hoffmansi / Ornate Antwren – not uncommon in mixed flocks.
Myrmotherula axillaris / White-flanked Antwren – localized? most regularly seen on Teles Pires trail and on Tapiri trail below the Serra, in low forest on rocky soil.
Myrmotherula longipennis transitiva / Long-winged Antwren – common in lower-level mixed flocks.
Myrmotherula menetriesii berlepschi / Gray Antwren – fairly common in lower-level mixed flocks.
Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus / Rufous-winged Antwren – common canopy species; seldom encountered in mixed flocks. One of the most frequently heard birds at Cristalino.
Microrhopias quixensis emiliae / Dot-winged Antwren – common in stands of Guadua bamboo. The local race emiliae is a likely future split.
Formicivora grisea / White-fringed Antwren – localized; only encountered on Serra.
Drymophila devillei subochracea / Striated Antbird – common in stands of Guadua bamboo. The local race subochracea is a likely future split, “Xingu Antbird”.
Cercomacra cinerascens / Gray Antbird – common in canopy vine tangles, and frequently heard.
Cercomacra nigrescens aproximans / Blackish Antbird – one sighting, 6/3 on the Serra trail.
Cercomacra manu / Manu Antbird – uncommon, with territories found on Taboca, Cacau, and Haffer, in stands of Guadua bamboo.
Pyriglena leuconota similis / White-backed Fire-eye – seemingly uncommon, most often encountered at antswarms.
Myrmoborus leucophrys / White-browed Antbird – common but inconspicuous in understory.
Myrmoborus myiotherinus / Black-faced Antbird – less common than the previous species.
Hypocnemis cantator striata / Warbling Antbird – common understory species; seems to prefer edges and light gaps.
Hypocnemoides maculicauda / Band-tailed Antbird – fairly common in riverine forest.
Sclateria naevia argentata / Silvered Antbird – uncommon in riverine forest along Cristalino.
Schistocichla leucostigma / Spot-winged Antbird – one territory near the start of the Teles Pires trail; fledglings observed in late June.
Myrmeciza hemimelaena / Chestnut-tailed Antbird – fairly common at hotel fragment; one territory found at Cristalino on the Teles Pires trail.
Rhegmatorhina gymnops / Bare-eyed Antbird – seemingly uncommon; only observed on the Taboca and on the Saleiro loop. Only encountered at antswarms.
Hylophilax naevia ochracea or theresae / Spot-backed Antbird – seemingly uncommon understory resident. Recorded at an antswarm 6/8 on Taboca.
Hylophylax punctulata subochracea / Dot-backed Antbird – seemingly uncommon in understory of igapó forest. One territory found near the lagoon on the Manakin trail.
Hylophylax poecilonata nigrigula / Scale-backed Antbird – widespread and fairly common but inconspicuous in forest understory. Note that the female of the local race does not have a scaled back and the rather wren-like appearance can present identification problems.
Phlegopsis nigromaculata bocumani / Black-spotted Bare-eye – one sighting 7/27 at an antswarm on Taboca.
Formicarius analis / Black-faced Antthrush – seemingly uncommon but calling only sporadically during our stay.
Grallaria varia / Variegated Antpitta – fairly common by voice but extremely difficult to see. Note that this species often sings from an elevated perch, sometimes 5 m above the ground or higher. Prefers igapó?
Hylopezus macularius paraensis / Spotted Antpitta – fairly common by voice in terra firme forest behind the lodge, but difficult to see.
Myrmothera campanisona / Thrush-like Antpitta – Heard calling from a thicket on the Teles Pires trail on a few occasions. Not singing during our stay.
Conopophaga aurita snethlageae / Chestnut-belted Gnateater – seemingly scarce, but not vocalizing during our stay. One sighting from the Castanheira on 7/1.
Attila spadiceus / Bright-rumped Attila – commonly heard throughout our stay.
Attila cinnamomeus / Cinnamon Attila –not uncommon by voice. Often observed in the vicinity of the bungalows and boat dock. Seems to prefer igap’o forest along the Cristalino, but not restricted to it.
Casiornis rufa / Rufous Casiornis – only observed on the Serra; first detected on 7/6 and seen on most visits thereafter.
Rhytipterna simplex / Grayish Mourner – widespread and seemingly not uncommon, but very inconspicuous when not singing.
Porphyrolaema porphyrolaema / Purple-throated Cotinga – One sighting of a pair at the new overlook on the Serra, 7/10.
Cotinga cayana / Spangled Cotinga – common canopy species, best observed from the tower at dawn or late in the afternoon.
Xipholaena punicea / Pompadour Cotinga – one sighting from the tower, 6/5.
Lipaugus vociferans / Screaming Piha – widespread and fairly common; conspicuous by voice but often difficult to see.
Cephalopterus ornatus / Amazonian Umbrellabird – uncommon, all sightings were of birds perched in the canopy along the Cristalino.
Gymnoderus foetidus / Bare-necked Fruitcrow – common canopy denizen, observed on almost every visit to the tower.
Pipra rubricapilla / Red-headed Manakin – males displaying at the lek on Rochas trail were easy to ovserve; uncommon away from this site.
Pipra faciicauda / Band-tailed Manakin – scarce; males recorded twice on Taboca, a female observed once near the bungalows.
Chiroxiphia pareola regina / Blue-backed Manakin – fairly common; present on most trails, though difficult to see. The local race regina shows a yellow crown; most races are red.
Machaeropterus pyrocephalus / Fiery-capped Manakin – regularly heard calling in igapó, especially near the Saleiro, but proved extremely difficult to see. A female observed on Taboca, 6/10.
Heterocercus linteatus / Flame-crested Manakin – seemingly uncommon in riverine forest along the Cristalino, with leks found on Cajá and near the lower landing on the Kawalli trail.
Tyranneutes stolzmanni / Dwarf Tyrant-Manakin – common by voice, though very inconspicuous when not singing.
Tityra inquisitor / Black-crowned Tityra – much less common than the previous species, observed 6/19 from the lodge clearing and 7/6 (a group of four) on the Serra.
Tityra semifasciata / Masked Tityra – fairly common inhabitant of forest canopy.
Schiffornis turdinus / Thrush-like Schiffornis – fairly common by voice, but inconspicuous in forest understory.
Laniocera hypopyrra / Cinereous Mourner – seemingly scarce and localized. A expanded lek found near the Taboca stream seemed to be actively singing throughout our stay.
Iodopleura isabellae / White-browed Purpletuft – seemingly not uncommon canopy species, but easy to miss. Most sightings were from the tower and the Serra.
Xenopsaris albinucha / White-naped Xenopsaris – seemingly scarce and restricted to the deciduous forest of the Serra; only recorded there on 6/3 and 7/22.
Pachyrhamphus castaneus / Chestnut-crowned Becard – scarce, sighted just twice during our stay: 7/11 on the Teles Pires trail and 7/22 on the Serra.
Pachyrhamphus polychopterus / White-winged Becard – heard singing regularly around the lodge clearing in the mornings, but otherwise only recorded once, 7/12 at Lagoa Cigana.
Pachyrhamphus marginatus / Black-capped Becard – seemingly rather uncommon, recorded from the tower, the Teles Pires trail, and Taboca, almost always in mixed flocks.
Piprites chloris / Wing-barred Piprites – seemingly fairly common and widespread in forest interior, most often encountered in mixed flocks.
Zimmerius gracilipes / Slender-footed Tyrannulet – seemingly rather uncommon canopy species.
Ornithion inerme / White-lored Tyrannulet – fairly common canopy species; regularly observed from the tower, rarely away from it.
Camptostoma obsoletum / Southern Beadless-Tyrannulet – fairly common in open habitats, such as river islands and the Serra.
Sublegatus obscurior / Amazonian Scrub-Flycatcher – one sighting, a pair observed constructing a nest at Limao on 7/12.
Sublegatus modestus / Southern Scrub-Flycatcher – one sighting, 5/29, of a bird foraging in the subcanopy on the Figuera trail.
Inezia subflava / Amazonian Tyrranulet – present on small islands in the Teles Pires.
Tyrannulus elatus / Yellow-crowned Tyrannulet – fairly common by voice by infrequently seen
Myiopagis gaimardii / Forest Elaenia – seemingly uncommon in canopy and at forest edge.
Myiopagis viridicata / Greenish Elaenia – one record, 6/25 at the bungalow clearing.
Elaenia parvirostris / Small-billed Elaenia – fairly common in canopy and at forest edge.
Leptopogon amaurocephalus / Sepia-capped Flycatcher – one sighting, 7/17 in terra firme on the Serra trail in a mixed flock.
Corithopis torquata / Ringed Antpipit – seemingly uncommon in igapó, recorded near the Taboca stream and near the Serra boat landing.
Capsiempis flaveola / Yellow Tyrannulet – one sighting in Guadua bamboo on Taboca, 7/16.
Myiornis ecaudatus / Short-tailed Pygmy-Tyant – seemingly uncommon but certainly inconspicuous at forest edge; only recorded from the Serra and at the hotel fragment.
Lophotriccus galeatus / Helmeted Pygmy-Trant – fairly common and widespread in middle levels of forest interior.
Hemitriccus minimus / Zimmer's Tody-Tyrant – one sighting of a vocalizing bird in igapó near the lower landing on the Kawalli trail, 7/1. Also heard calling from the left bank of the Cristalino across from the Cajá.
Hemitriccus griseipectus / White-bellied Tody-Tyrant – seemingly not uncommon; perhaps preferring igapó. How this species might differ from the previous in habitat preference is unclear.
Todirostrum chrysocrotaphum / Yellow-browed Tody-Flycatcher – rarely seen but perhaps not uncommon canopy resident; best observed from the tower.
Todirostrum maculatum / Spotted Tody-Flycatcher – fairly common but restricted to forested riverbanks and islands.
Todirostrum latirostre / Rusty-fronted Tody-flycatcher – two records, 6/29 and 7/6 on the Serra.
Ramphotrigon megacephala / Large-headed Flatbill – fairly common and widespread but restricted to stands of Guadua bamboo.
Ramphotrigon ruficauda / Rufous-tailed Flatbill – seemingly uncommon in middle levels of forest interior; observed on the Taboca and Teles Pires trails.
Rhynchocyclus olivaceus / Olivaceous Flatbill – one record, 7/16, on the Taboca in a mixed flock.
Tolmomyias poliocephalus / Gray-crowned Flycatcher – seemingly uncommon but probably overlooked; two definite records of this species from the lodge clearing, 6/19 and 7/20.
Tolmomyias a. assimilis / Yellow-margined Flycatcher – one record, 7/22, at the edge of humid forest on the Serra. The local (nominate) race could someday be split from trans-Andean populations.
Platyrhinchus platyrhynchos / White-crested Spadebill – perhaps not uncommon in lower levels of terra firme, but extremely inconspicuous when not vocalizing.
Platyrhinchus coronatus / Golden-crowned Spadebill – one record, 7/25 at the downstream end of the Cacau.
Onychorhynchus coronatus / Amazonian Royal-Flycatcher – seemingly uncommon in understory of igapó; a pair appeared to be constructing a nest near the Serra on 5/26 – abandoned?
Terenotriccus erythrurus / Ruddy-tailed Flycatcher – widespread and seemingly uncommon; inconspicuous and most often encountered in mixed flocks.
Myiobius barbatus insignis / Whiskered Flycatcher – one record, 7/24, on Taboca.
Lathrotriccus euleri / Euler's Flycatcher – seemingly uncommon resident of forest understory.
Ochthornis littoralis / Drab Water-Tyrant – regularly recorded along the edge of the TP near the boat landing.
Colonia colonus / Long-tailed Tyrant – seen on almost all visits to the tower.
Myiarchus ferox / Short-crested Flycatcher – common at forest edge and on larger river islands; also record 6/30 in the Secret Garden.
Myiarchus tyrannulus / Brown-crested Flycatcher – regularly recorded on the Serra (where M. ferox apparently absent), and also recorded in the Secret Garden 5/29.
Myiarchus tuberculifer / Dusky-capped Flycatcher – seemingly scarce; one definite record ofa vocalizing bird, 6/12 in the Secret Garden.
Pitangus sulphuratus / Great Kiskadee – seemingly uncommon, only observed on the Serra and Isla Ariosto in the TP.
Philohydor lictor / Lesser Kiskadee – one record, 6/7 at Limao.
Myiozetetes luteiventris / Dusky-chested Flycatcher – seemingly uncommon canopy resident; four records from the tower and one from the Serra.
Myiozetetes cayanensis / Rusty-margined Flycatcher – fairly common in open habitats near Alta Floresta.
Myiodynastes maculatus / Streaked Flycatcher – several sightings from the Serra.
Legatus leucophaius / Piratic Flycatcher – seemingly less common than the next species, most often seen on the Serra..
Empidonomus varius / Variegated Flycatcher – fairly common canopy resident.
Empidonomus aurantioatrocristatus / Crowned Slaty-Flycatcher – common in forest canopy.
Tyrannopsis sulphurea / Sulphury Flycatcher – only recorded in the buritizal on the Alta Florest road, where inconspicuous and easy to miss.
Tyrannus melancholicus / Tropical Kingbird – common in open habitat around Alta Floresta.
Tachycineta albiventer / White-winged Swallow – common along the Cristalino and TP.
Progne chalybea / Gray-breasted Martin – observed on every visit to the tower, and almost nowhere else.
Atticora fasciata / White-banded Swallow – less common than Tachycineta albiventer along the Cristalino and TP.
Neochelidon tibialis / White-thighed Swallow – seemingly not uncommon but perhaps localized; recorded on most visits to the Serra.
Stelgidopteryx ruficollis / Southern Rough-winged Swallow – common in open areas and along rivers.
Campylorhynchus turdinus hypostictus / Thrush-like Wren – fairly common at the hotel fragment; seemingly scarce at Cristalino, where only heard singing in the vicinity of Taboca.
Odontorchilus cinereus / Tooth-billed Wren – probably not uncommon but certainly inconspicuous canopy resident; best observed from the tower and on the Serra.
Thryothorus genibarbis / Moustached Wren – widespread and fairly common in forest interior; prefers stands of Guadua bamboo.
Thryothorus leucotis / Buff-breasted Wren – fairly common but restricted to forested riverbanks and islands.
Microcerculus m. marginatus / Southern Nightingale-Wren – one record, 7/22 on the Cacau.
Cyphorhinus aradus griseolateralis / Musician Wren – widespread but uncommon, with territories on Castanheira and the Saleiro loop.
Donacobuis atricapillus / Black-capped Donacobius – seen one, 7/12 on our one trip to Cigana.
Turdus lawrencii / Lawrence's Thrush – territories found in igapó near the Saleiro and on the Haffer trail. This difficult-to-see species is an exceptional vocal mimic, often stringing together 20 or more phrases before repeating.
Turdus fumigatus / Cocoa Thrush – not uncommon in floodplain forest; its beautiful song was often heard at dawn and dusk from the boat dock, but it was rather difficult to see well. There is some confusion as to whether the population at Cristalino belongs to T. fumigatus or T. hauxwelli; the birds we observed seemed to better match the cold-brown appearance of T. fumigatus. As far as we know the two species do not differ vocally.
Turdus albicollis / White-necked Thrush – seemingly scarce and extremely secretive; seen on a few brief occasions in the vicinity of the Saleiro.
Ramphocaenus melanurus / Long-billed Gnatwren – fairly common, favoring terra firme, and often found in vine tangles.
Polioptila guianensis paraensis / Guianan Gnatcatcher – seen in a high canopy mixed flock on the Castanheira Trail with John Rowlett, 7/1. Thel local race paraensis is a potential future split, “Pará Gnatcatcher”.
Cyclarhis gujanensis / Rufous-browed Peppershrike – only observed on Isla Ariosto on the TP.
Vireolanius leucotis / Slaty-capped Shrike-Vireo – common canopy resident, often accompanying mixed flocks; somewhat difficult to see well.
Vireo olivaceus chivi / Red-eyed Vireo – seen only on the Serra at the edges of humid forest.
Hylophilus semicinereus / Gray-chested Greenlet – seemingly uncommon but likely overlooked. Only seen once with certainty, 6/9, in the flooded forest on the Manakin trail.
Hylophilus hypoxanthus / Dusky-capped Greenlet – fairly common and widespread.
Hylophilus pectoralis / Ashy-headed Greenlet – only one sighting, by the boat dock on 6/12.
Granatellus pelzelni / Rose-breasted Chat – not uncommon in terra firme, most sightings were on the Taboca and Cacau trails.
Basileuterus culicivorus / Golden-crowned Warbler – only present in the humid forest on the upper parts of the Serra.
Coereba flaveola / Bananaquit – only encountered on the Serra and on Isla Ariosto on the TP.
Cyanerpes caeruleus arela / Purple Honeycreeper – perhaps a fairly common canopy resident; most often observed on the Serra.
Chlorophanes spiza / Green Honeycreeper – not uncommon in canopy flocks.
Dacnis cayana / Blue Dacnis – perhaps a fairly common canopy resident; most often observed on the Serra.
Dacnis lineata / Black-faced Dacnis – common in canopy flocks and on the Serra.
Dacnis flaviventer / Yellow-bellied Dacnis – only encountered in forest canopy along the banks of the Cristalino and the TP.
Euphonia minuta / White-vented Euphonia – one sighting, 6/3,on the Serra.
Euphonia laniirostris / Thick-billed Euphonia – observed on most visits to the Serra, and also seen near the Saleiro on 6/9. This species generally favors forest edge.
Euphonia rufiventris / Rufous-bellied Euphonia – common and widespread in forest canopy.
Euphonia chrysopasta / White-lored Euphonia – less common than the previous species in forest canopy.
Euphonia xanthogaster / Orange-belllied Euphonia – recorded from the tower and on the Teles Pires trail; generally favors forest and sometimes occurs at edge as well. Very difficult to distiguish from the next species; habitat preference should be taken into consideration but not relied upon completely.
Euphonia chlorotica / Purple-throated Euphonia – only observed on Isla Ariosto on the TP; this species is an inhabitant of open areas, forest edge, and second growth.
Tangara velia / Opal-rumped Tanager – perhaps uncommon in forest canopy but widespread.
Tangara chilensis / Paradise Tanager – perhaps uncommon in forest canopy; most often recorded near the Saleiro and on the Teles Pires trail; also from the tower.
Tangara schrankii / Green-and-gold Tanager – uncommon in forest canopy; only encountered on the Teles Pires trail and near the Saleiro.
Tangara punctata / Spotted Tanager – not recorded until 7/21 on the Serra.
Tangara nigrocincta / Masked Tanager – not uncommon at forest edge; widespread.
Tangara mexicana / Turquoise Tanager – fairly common and widespread in canopy; recorded on most visits to the Serra.
Tangara gyrola / Bay-headed Tanager – fairly common and widespread, often found in mixed flocks.
Thraupis episcopus / Blue-gray Tanager – only observed at the buritizal (moriche palm swamp) and on Islas Ariosto on te TP; favors second growth and cleared areas.
Thraupis palmarum / Palm Tanager – common and widesread; a fixture around the lodge and at the canopy tower.
Ramphocelus carbo / Silver-beaked Tanager – common around the lodge and at river edge.
Habia rubica / Red-crowned Ant-Tanager – perhaps not uncommon, but certainly inconspicuous. Seems to favor igapó, with territories near the Saleiro, on the first part of the Teles Pires trail, and near the Taboca stream.
Lanio versicolor / White-winged Shrike-Tanager – fairly common leader of mixed flocks; perhaps favors igapó.
Tachyphonus cristatus / Flame-crested Tanager – fairly common and widespread in forest canopy.
Tachyphonus luctuosus / White shoudered Tanager – fairly common and widespread.
Hemithraupis flavicollis / Yellow-backed Tanager – not uncommon in forest canopy; most sightings were in the vicinity of the Saleiro.
Lamprospiza melanoleuca / Red-billed Pied Tanager – uncommon and widespread; a pair were attending one nestling in a nest on the Serra near the new overlook on 5/25.
Cissopis leveriana / Magpie Tanager – only recorded at the hotel in Alta Floresta.
Tersina viridis / Swallow-Tanager – fairly common along the Cristalino; often visible from the boat dock.
Pitylus grossus / Slate-colored Grosbeak – fairly common and widespread, favoring forest canopy; heard more often than seen.
Parkerthraustes humeralis / Yellow-shouldered Grosbeak – seemingly not uncommon, but restricted to forest canopy and therefore dificult to see.
Paroaria gularis / Red-capped Cardinal – common along the Cristalino and the TP.
Volatinia jacarina / Blue-black Grassquit – scarce at Cristalino; only observed at Limao and on the Serra in July.
Arremon taciturnus / Pectoral Sparrow – uncommon and secretive in forest interior; only observed on a couple of occasions in igapó near the start of the Teles Pires trail.
Zonotrichius capensis / Rufous-collared Sparrow – one sighting, 7/22 on the Serra.
Molothrus oryzivora / Giant Cowbird – seemingly uncommon; single birds recorded from the tower and at Limao.
Psarocolius decumanus / Crested Oropendola – fairly common and widespread, favoring edge more than the next species. A male often perched and sang from a perch visible below the new overlook at the Serra.
Psarocolius bifasciatus yuracares / Amazonian Oropendola – seemingly uncommon but widespread in forest canopy; seen regularly at the start of the Castanheira trail.
Cacicus cela / Yellow-rumped Cacique – fairly common, most often observed from Rio Cristalino and at Floresta Amazonica. An accomplished vocal mimic.
Icterus cayanensis / Epaulet Oriole – sporadically fairly common in canopy and at forest edge.
Passer domesticus / House Sparrow – only observed in Alta Floresta.
Elaenia spectabilis / Large Elaenia – an Elaenia observed 7/17 on the Serra attending a fruiting shrub with Eleaenia parvirostris may have been this species.
Mionectes oleagineus / Ochre-bellied Flycatcher – a bird that may have been this species was observed in a mixed flock on Taboca, 6/10.
Myiarchus swainsoni / Swainson's Flycatcher – a silent Myiarchus with an extensively pale mandible observed in the flooded forest on the Manakin trail, 6/9, may have been this species.
Tyrannus albogularis / White-throated Kingbird – A Tyrannus observed flying over the Cristalino on 7/17 was probably this species.
Taxonomy and nomenclature follow:
Emmons, Louise. Neotropical Rainforest Mammals: A Field Guide. University of Chicago, 1997.
Tamandua tetradactyla / Southern Tamandua
Dasypus novemcinctus / Nine-banded Long-nosed Armadillo
Tadarida brasiliensis / Brazilian Free-tailed Bat – these bats roost in rocky crevices and can be found on the Serra during the day. If you lift up rocks looking for bats, and you find one underneath, it is very difficult to replace the rock without injuring or trapping the bat. It is possible to find the bats without lifting up the rocks, especially with the use of a small mirror!
Callithrix argentata / Silvery Marmoset – seen once at the hotel fragment, once on Figuera (a large group of 20+).
Aotus sp. / Night Monkey – seen between the dining room and the bungalows, also at the junction of Figuera and Taboca.
Callicebus moloch / Dusky Titi Monkey – only observed on the Haffer trail.
Cebus apella / Brown Capuchin Monkey – common.
Chiripotes albinasus / White-nosed Bearded Saki Monkey – seen less than weekly at Cristalino.
Alouatta seniculus / Red Howler Monkey – present on the left bank of the Teles Pires; seen in the hotel fragment.
Alouatta belzebul / Red-handed Howler Monkey – present on the right bank of the Teles Pires; seen regularly at Cristalino.
Ateles belzebuth marginatus / White-bellied Spider Monkey – the local race marginatus is the symbol for Cristalino State Park, and considered by some to be a full species, White-whiskered Spider Monkey.
Nasua nasua / South American Coati – infrequently encountered; the local race is a bright rust orange.
Potus flavus / Kinkajou – heard on a few occasions at night.
Eira barbara / Tayra – infrequently encountered in forest and at lodge clearing.
Lontra longicaudis / Neotropical Otter – observed regularly on the Cristalino.
Tapirus terrestris / Brazilian Tapir – regularly encountered at the Saleiro at night. As water levels dropped in July, we began to see tapirs in the Cristalino during the day as well.
Tayassu tajacu / Collared Peccary – infrequently encountered in the forest, rarely in groups of more than ten animals.
Mazama americana / Red Brocket Deer – rarely encountered in forest and at edge.
Sciurus aestuans / Guianan Squirrel – seen weekly in forest.
Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris / Capybara – recorded on the Cristalino and at the hotel fragment.
Agouti paca / Paca – seen twice on the left bank of the Cristalino just downstream of the lodge after dark.
Dasyprocta agouti / Red-rumped Agouti – present on the right bank of the Teles Pires; very infrequently encountered at Cristalino.
Dasyprocta azarae / Azara’s Agouti – present on the left bank of the Teles Pires; abundant at the hotel fragment.