We had planned a visit to Sri Lanka for many years and had such an enjoyable, relaxed and rewarding trip that we wished we had done so long before. Birds are abundant and tame everywhere we went. The countrys politics are causing problems in the far north and north-east, but we saw nothing of the troubles during our visit to the centre and south of Sri Lanka. We visited some areas, such as Yala, that were badly hit by the December 2004 tsunami, but these had apparently recovered well, with most local people having been rehoused and all the tourism services in place again.
While all the endemic birds can be seen in a 14 day trip or less, we decided to go for longer to have a more relaxed visit and enjoy some of the countrys fascinating ancient ruins at the end of our trip. These sites proved interesting for birds too. Normally we prefer going independently on bird trips, but it is much easier and quicker to find some of the Sri Lankan endemics with a guide, at least at some sites. Its possible and safe to use public transport, but hiring a car and driver is again much easier and quicker. We decided to ask Jetwing Eco Holidays (www.jetwingeco.com, email@example.com) to organise our trip within the country and were delighted with the efficient service they provided. We highly recommend Jetwing Eco Holidays to other birders planning a Sri Lanka trip. The cost was very reasonable. We recorded 238 species, including all the endemics except the Serendib Scops Owl, and stayed at some lovely places, all of which were very convenient for birding. We flew by Kuwait Airways as this was the cheapest option for us at the time, but Air Lanka also offer cheap deals and direct flights from London.
We chose to have a driver guide (cheaper than hiring a guide and driver) - Wicky Wickramasekara, who we were told was Jetwing Eco Holidays best driver guide. Wicky knows the Sri Lankan birds very well. He was reliable, good fun, patient and knowledgeable about the Sri Lankan cultural sites as well. We would have seen far fewer birds without him. Jetwing Eco Holidays also have two of the best bird guides in Sri Lanka Deepal Warakagoda and Lester Perera. Deepal is especially knowledgeable. He discovered the Serendib Scops Owl and can probably find this elusive and nocturnal species more easily than anyone else. Deepal kindly tried to show us the owl at Sinharaja, but we missed it because of prolonged rain. National Parks require visitors on jeep drives around the parks to have a paid local guide and both the jeep driver and guide expect tips. Costs are relatively small in UK terms and we asked Wicky for advice on tips.
Jetwing Eco Holidays have an excellent website on Sri Lanka birds and other wildlife.www.jetwingeco.com. Details of their tours, guides and drive-guide led trips are on the same site.
January or February are the best months for Sri Lanka birding. December can be rather wet, although its also a good time to visit. We had some rain at Sinharaja, but this didnt stop us seeing most of the endemics there and we only lost one day to bad weather in the Knuckles Range.
3 December Arrival 06h30 Colombo airport. Talangama tank, near Colombo.
4 December Talangama tank, Sinharaja, night at Martins Simple Lodge
5 December Sinharaja
6 December Sinharaja
7 December Sinharaja, Udawalawe National Park, night at Embilipitiya
8 December Embilipitiya, Udawalawe N.P., Lunugamvehera N.P., Tissamaharama, Deberawewa tank, night in Tissamaharama
9 December Bundala National Park, Weerawira tank, Tissamaharama tank, Yodhawewa tank, night in Tissamaharama
10 December Tissamaharama, Ruhuna (=Yala West) National Park, night at Yala Village Hotel
11 December Ruhuna National Park, night at Yala Village
12 December Ruhuna National Park and nearby saltpans, Nuwara Eliya
13 December Horton National Plains, Victoria Park in Nuwara Eliya, night at Nuwara Eliya
14 December Nuwara Eliya, Kithulgala and Kelani Forest, night at Kithulgala
15 December Kithulgala
16 December Kithulgala, Kandy, Pulni Aramba forest, night at Hunas Falls Hotel, Knuckles Range
17 December Hunas Falls Hotel garden
18 December Dambulla caves, Sigiriya, night at Teak Forest Lodge
19 December Sigiriya Reserve, Sigiriya, Polonnaruwa, Parakrama Samudra, Minneriya National Park, night at Teak Forest Lodge
20 December Sigiriya Reserve, Negombo
21 December 07h30 Departure for UK
Visiting Sinharaja is a must for a Sri Lanka birding trip. The majority of the countrys endemic birds occur here and its easier to see many of them there than at other sites. It is the last extensive primary lowland tropical rainforest in Sri Lanka. We spent three nights at Sinharaja and thought this was the right length of time to see the most species, although if you are lucky you could manage with two nights. We stayed at Martins Simple Lodge, just outside the core area of the reserve, and recommend this to other visitors. Its an excellent location for birding, with unrivalled views over the rainforest from the balcony-cum-dining area, good local food, and rather basic accommodation, but it is clean and quite comfortable. Reaching Sinharajas core area entails a long uncomfortable ride up a winding rough road in a jeep or a long walk. Its possible to stay near the park headquarters, but doing so means making this journey every day and making a late start to birding. Good quality hotel accommodation is a few hours away from the core area in Ratnapura. From Martins place we were able to make productive bird walks along the former logging tracks and also look from the lodge balcony. Please note that bird recording and playback are no longer allowed in the reserves core area. Visitors are obliged to take a local guide on all walks in the core area and to pay for their services. Ranjit was our guide and he was excellent. Leech socks are useful and we certainly needed them as our stay was quite wet.
Bird highlights: Sri Lanka Spurfowl (a surprisingly difficult bird to see although fairly common here and frequently heard calling), Sri Lanka Junglefowl, Sri Lanka Grey Hornbill, Malabar Trogon, Crimson-backed Flameback, Yellow-fronted Barbet, Sri Lanka Frogmouth, Sri Lanka Hanging Parrot, Layards Parakeet, Sri Lanka Green Pigeon, Red-faced Malkoha, Orange Minivet, Sri Lanka Blue Magpie, Sri Lanka Crested Drongo, Spot-winged Thrush, Sri Lanka Scaly Thrush, Brown-breasted Flycatcher, Sri Lanka Myna, White-faced Starling, Black-capped Bulbul, Square-tailed Black Bulbul, Ashy-headed Laughingthrush, Brown-capped Babbler, Sri Lanka Scimitar Babbler, Dark-fronted Babbler, Orange-billed Babbler, Yellow-browed Bulbul, Legges Flowerpecker.
Other wildlife Purple-faced Leaf Monkey, Toque Macaque, Grizzled Giant Squirrel, Sri Lankan Kangaroo Lizard, Water Monitor, Spotted Black Turtle, Ceylon Blue Mormon, Ceylon Tree Nymph, Pitcher plant Nepenthes distillatoria.
Kithulgala and Kelani Valley Forest Reserve
The Kelani Valley is a lowland tropical rainforest rich in endemic species. Its an ideal place to visit for any missed lowland endemics. However, most species are easier to see at Sinharaja. We stayed at Rafters Retreat, a very pleasant eco-lodge on the banks of the Kelani River.
Bird highlights Green-billed Coucal (that we were unlucky to miss at Sinharaja, but fairly easy to see here), Sri Lanka Grey Hornbill (good site for this species, we only saw briefly at Sinharaja), Malabar Trogon, Crimson-backed Flameback, Yellow-fronted Barbet, Sri Lanka Hanging Parrot, Sri Lanka Green Pigeon, Chestnut-backed Owlet (we only heard at Sinharaja, but found quite easy to see here), Sri Lanka Frogmouth, Oriental Dwarf Kingfisher, Orange Minivet, Sri Lanka Crested Drongo, Spot-winged Thrush, Brown-breasted Flycatcher, Black-capped Bulbul, Yellow-browed Bulbul, Square-tailed Black Bulbul, Orange-billed Babbler.
Other wildlife Sri Lankan Kangaroo Lizard
Horton Plains National Park
Horton Plains N.P. is by far the best area to see Sri Lankas highland endemics. Most of these species are most active at dawn. Arrenga Pool is a pond at the forest edge and is now just within the park boundary. Its strongly advisable to be here before first light. Soon after dawn we had heard Sri Lanka Whistling Thrush and seen Sri Lanka Bush Warbler, Sri Lanka Wood Pigeon, and Indian Blackbird here, all of which were difficult to find later in the day. We chose to walk to the Worlds End viewpoint (4 km) which goes through beautiful temperate forest giving more opportunity to see some of the endemics although, as we were concentrating on birding by the time we reached Worlds End, our view was obscured by mist! Its best to get there before 9h30 if you want to see the view!
Bird highlights Crimson-backed Flameback, Sri Lanka Wood Pigeon, Himalayan Buzzard, Sri Lanka Whistling Thrush, Indian Blackbird, Kashmir Flycatcher, Dull Blue Flycatcher (we were unlucky with this usually easy-to-see species and only had it singing here), Hill Swallow, Yellow-eared Bulbul, Sri Lanka Bush Warbler, Sri Lanka White-eye.
Other wildlife Purple-faced Leaf Monkey and Black-lipped Lizard
Victoria Park and Nuwara Eliya
Nuwara Eliya is a small town in the central highlands in the heart of Sri Lankas tea plantations. There is a wide range of accommodation. We enjoyed staying at the atmospheric and luxurious St Andrews Hotel, an ex-tree planters club. On the slopes behind the hotel there is an interesting patch of primary montane cloud forest with a nature trail, although gloomy weather made our visit unproductive. Victoria Park is a public park in the middle of the town and a traditional site for Pied Thrush. Unfortunately the parks undergrowth has been unnecessarily tidied up, resulting in fewer Pied Thrushes in recent years than previously, but we still saw two males very well, foraging around a compost heap.
Bird highlights Indian Pitta, Pied Thrush and Forest Wagtail in Victoria Park. Yellow-eared Bulbul and Sri Lanka White-eye in and around Nuwara Eliya; also in montane forests near the town we saw Sri Lanka Whistling Thrush and Dull-blue Flycatcher.
Ruhuna (Yala West) National Park
Ruhuna is perhaps Sri Lankas best known national park and well worth a visit, even on a short birding trip to the country. The park lies on a coastal plain in the south-west of Sri Lanka and comprises dry zone tropical thorn forest, some mature riverine forest and several freshwater lakes and brackish lagoons. The wetlands were damaged by the 2004 tsunami and, apparently do not attract the same numbers of waders as previously, perhaps because the muddy bottoms have been replaced by sand that provides the birds with less food. However, we still saw a large variety of waders and other wetland birds in the park. The park is also very good for many dry zone and riverine species. The park is famous for seeing mammals and especially Leopards. Access is only allowed by vehicle and visitors are not allowed to get down. While this is restricting, it has resulted in wildlife being tame and the jeep proved to be a good hide. Wicky ensured that we had a driver who would help us find birds as well as mammals. We had three game drives in the park. Tragically, two hotels that were very close to the park, including the Jetwing hotel were washed away by the tsunami, although these are being rebuilt. We stayed at a chalet in the very pleasant Yala Village Hotel that is also ideally situated near the park.
Bird highlights Sri Lanka Junglefowl, Barred Buttonquail, Malabar Pied Hornbill, Indian Nightjar, Great Thick-knee, Grey-headed Fish Eagle, Crested Hawk Eagle, Amur Falcon, Darter, Black-necked Stork, Painted Stork, Lesser Adjutant, Woolly-necked Stork, Orange-breasted Green Pigeon, Pied Cuckoo, Indian Pitta, Sri Lanka Woodshrike, Brown-breasted Flycatcher, Sri Lanka Swallow, Dark-fronted Babbler, Brown-capped Babbler, Jerdons Bushlark, Forest Wagtail.
Other wildlife Leopard, Asian Elephant, Spotted Deer, Sambar, Golden Jackal, Ruddy Mongoose, Grey Mongoose, Tufted Grey Langur, Toque Macaque, Wild Boar, Bengal Monitor, Water Monitor, Mugger Crocodile, Star Tortoise.
Bundala National Park
This is a Ramsar site and the most important wetland for birds outside the Northern Province. The parks lagoons are amongst the most important wintering areas for migratory waders in Sri Lanka. The park contains several shallow brackish lagoons with salt pans, brackish marshes, intertidal mudflats, sandy beaches and dunes, and dry thorn scrub. The habitats we were able to explore were the brackish lagoons and marshes and thorn scrub. Once again we were not allowed to get down from the jeep but this proved an ideal way to watch birds in the park as they were obviously used to vehicles and allowed a close approach without flying off. We were very lucky to visit the park the day after a major cyclone had passed north. As a result, there were far higher numbers of terns than usual (see checklist below). The numbers we counted (see checklist) were significant under-estimates as we saw hundreds of terns that were too far away to identify. We also watched an immature Pomarine Jaeger resting on a salt pan (see checklist) a vagrant to land on the Sri Lanka coast.
Bird highlights Sri Lanka Junglefowl, Barred Buttonquail, Blue-faced Malkoha, Pied and Chestnut-winged Cuckoos, Great Thick-knee, Lesser Sand Plover, Marsh Sandpiper, Great Crested and Lesser Crested Terns, Pomarine Jaeger, Darter, Painted Stork, Spot-billed Pelican, Sand Martin, Clamorous Reed Warbler, Yellow-eyed Babbler, Tricoloured Munia.
Other wildlife Tufted Grey Langur, Toque Macaque, Mugger Crocodile.
There are several man-made tanks many hundreds of years old (Deberawewa, Yodhawewa, Tissamaharama and Weerawira) in south-west Sri Lanka near to Ruhuna. The town of Tissamaharama is a good base from which to explore these areas. Large numbers of wetland birds were seen on the tanks and in nearby newly flooded paddyfields, including a wide variety of waders and terns.
Bird highlights Purple Swamphen, Marsh Sandpiper, Lesser Sand Plover, Yellow-wattled Lapwing, Long-toed Stint, Grey-headed Fish Eagle, Black Bittern, Cotton Pygmy-goose, Sri Lanka Woodshrike, Jerdons Leafbird, Tawny-bellied and Yellow-eyed Babblers.
Other wildlife Mugger Crocodile, Bengal Monitor.
Udawalawe National Park
A good site for dry zone birds and Asian Elephants. The main habitats are dry thorn scrub and grasslands. We had a three hour drive around the park and were able to stop and view birds from the jeep whenever we liked. Rain curtailed our visit but we still had a good variety of birds. The park is adjacent to a reservoir and the embankment produced larks and pipits.
Bird highlights Barred Buttonquail, Crimson-backed Flameback, Malabar Pied Hornbill, Blue-faced Malkoha, Plum-headed Parakeet (the only place we found this species, Orange-breasted Green Pigeon, Crested Hawk Eagle, Spot-billed Pelican, Jerdons Leafbird, prinias, Yellow-eyed Babbler, Jerdons Bushlark, Tricoloured Munia.
Other wildlife Asian Elephant, Toque Macaque, Tufted Grey Langur, Jungle Cat, Ruddy Mongoose, Bengal Monitor.
Minneriya National Park
This park is less visited by birdwatchers and is popular for its Asian Elephants. At the time of our visit, the grasslands favoured by elephants were mainly flooded but we did find some interesting birds. Once again access is only allowed by jeeps and accompanied by a park guide. During our afternoon visit they were very obliging in helping us find birds.
Bird highlights Blue-breasted Quail (the only place we found this species, although it is widespread in Sri Lanka), Sri Lanka Junglefowl, Barred Buttonquail, Crimson-backed Flameback, Blue-faced Malkoha, Sri Lanka Green Pigeon, Grey-headed Fish Eagle, Spot-billed Pelican, Woolly-necked Stork, Lesser Adjutant, Sri Lanka Woodshrike, Tricoloured Munia.
Other wildlife Asian Elephant, Ruddy Mongoose, Bengal Monitor
Around the major cultural site of Sigiriya fortress, on top of Sigiriya Rock, lie the extensive wetlands and forests of Sigiriya Reserve, which are well worth visiting for birds. We stayed in a chalet at the pleasant Teak Forest Lodge on the reserve edge.
Bird highlights Malabar Pied Hornbill, Pied Cuckoo, Blue-faced Malkoha, Collared Scops Owl, Jerdons Nightjar, Indian Nightjar, Sri Lanka Green Pigeon, Crested Hawk Eagle, Sri Lanka Woodshrike, Jerdons Leafbird, Orange-headed Thrush, Sri Lanka Swallow, Brown-capped, Tawny-bellied and Dark-fronted Babblers.
Other wildlife Tufted Grey Langur, Toque Macaque, Grizzled Giant Squirrel.
A large man-made lake created over 500 years ago near Colombo. The lake and associated marshes are a good site for many wetland species. We found it an excellent place for some relaxed birding after a night flight from the UK and were lucky that Jetwing organised us to stay at a luxury local home overlooking the lake.
Bird highlights Black and Yellow Bitterns, Sri Lanka Swallow. Talangama was one of only two sites where we saw Crimson-fronted Barbet.
Other wildlife Purple-faced Leaf Monkey, Water Monitor.
This range of 1,500 m high peaks has pockets of montane forest. We stayed at the luxurious Hunas Falls Hotel, which has a beautiful setting amongst gardens that merge into the natural submontane forest. There are numerous pools and a lake that are rich in dragonfly and frog species. A butterfly garden has been created. The hotel lies on the site of a former tea planters bungalow and above the tea plantations. It is a good base to search for montane species, but these are much easier to see in Horton Plains N.P. We were unlucky to have very wet weather during our two night stay. Nearby is an interesting patch of submontane forest, Pulni Aramba.
Bird highlights Hunas Falls: Brown Fish Owl, Sri Lanka Hanging Parrot, Layards Parakeet, Sri Lanka Swallow, Hill Swallow.
Pulni Aramba: Crimson-fronted Barbet, Sri Lanka Hanging Parrot, Layards Parakeet, Chestnut-backed Owlet, Lesser Hill Myna.
Other wildlife Brown Mongoose and the tree frog Microhyla zeylanica in Hunas Falls hotel garden.
Parakrama Samudra (Sea of Parakrama)
This is a huge, 2,500 hectare, man-made reservoir built in the 12th century. The ruins of Polonnaruwa, an ancient capital of Sri Lanka lie in a wooded park setting on the shores of the lake. The ruins are fascinating to visit, but not particularly interesting for birds.
Bird highlights Spot-billed Pelican.
Other wildlife Indian Softshell Turtle, Ceylon Blue Mormon.
We arrived at Negombo beach around lunchtime and spent the rest of the day watching the sea from the balcony of our hotel (Seashells) that lies on the beach. We were lucky that our visit coincided with bad weather offshore and a moderate onshore wind. This resulted in a spectacular tern movement, including one Bridled, 200 Whiskered, 20 Gull-billed, three Caspian and 20 Great Crested Terns as well as flocks of 50 Roseate and 70 Common Terns around a fishing boat close to the shore.
Negombo was a good place to spend our last night as it was only 20 minutes drive from the hotel to the airport; we left very early the following morning.
* Indicates Endemic Species
Blue-breasted Quail Coturnix chinensis Two flushed from wet grassland in Minneriya National Park.
* Sri Lanka Spurfowl Galloperdix bicalcarata 1-2 recorded on all of our days at Sinharaja mainly heard but had two sightings of this highly elusive species. One heard at Kithulgala.
* Sri Lanka Junglefowl Gallus lafayetii Max. 9 seen at Sinharaja. Also heard or seen in Bundala N.P., Ruhuna N.P., Minneriya N.P. and Sigiriya.
Indian Peafowl Pavo cristatus Max. 70 in Ruhuna N.P. Also heard or seen in Udawalawe N.P., Bundala N.P., Minneriya N.P. and Sigiriya.
Lesser Whistling-duck Dendrocygna javanica Max. 300 at Deberawewa wetland, also seen at Talangama tank, Udawalawe N.P., Tissamaharama tank and Ruhuna N.P., Polonnaruwa and Sigiriya.
Cotton Pygmy-goose Nettapus coromandelianus Six at Weerawira tank.
Garganey Anas querquedula Max. of 55 at Yodhawewa, also seen in Ruhuna N.P.,
Barred Buttonquail Turnix suscitator Max. 7 seen at Udawalawe, also in Bundala N.P., Ruhuna N.P., Sigiriya and Minneriya N.P.
Yellow-crowned Woodpecker Dendrocopos mahrattensis Max. 3 at Bundala N.P.,
also in Udawalawe N.P. and Ruhuna N.P.
Lesser Yellownape Picus chlorolophus Singles at Sinharaja and Kithulgala.
Black-rumped Flameback Dinopium benghalense Max. 4 at Kithulgala, also heard or seen at Talangama tank, Udawalawe N.P., Deberawewa wetland, Bundala N.P., Weerawira, Ruhuna N.P. and Sigiriya.
* Crimson-backed Flameback Chrysocolaptes stricklandi Max. 3 at Udawalawe, also heard or seen at Sinharaja, Horton Plains N.P., Kithulgala and Minneriya N.P. Brown-headed Barbet Megalaima zeylanica Common and widespread. Max. 10 in day around Tissamaharama.
* Yellow-fronted Barbet Megalaima flavifrons Max. 5 at Sinharaja. Also heard or seen at Kithulgala and Pulni Aramba.
* Crimson-fronted Barbet Megalaima rubricapilla One seen at Talangama tank and two at Pulni Aramba.
Coppersmith Barbet Megalaima haemacephala Max. 10 at Sigiriya, also seen or heard Udawalawe N.P., around Tissamaharama, Ruhuna N.P., Kithulgala and Minneriya N.P.
* Sri Lanka Grey Hornbill Ocyceros gingalensis Max. four at Kithulgala and one seen at Sinharaja.
Malabar Pied Hornbill Anthracoceros coronatus Max. 8 at Ruhuna N.P. Also seen in Udawalawe N.P. and Sigiriya. Globally near-threatened.
Common Hoopoe Upupa epops Max 21 in Ruhuna N.P. Udawalawe N.P. and Bundala N.P.
Malabar Trogon Harpactes fasciatus Max 5 seen at Sinharaja, one heard at Kithulgala.
Indian Roller Coracias benghalensis Udawalawe N.P., Bundala N.P., Minneriya N.P. and Sigiriya. Max. 4 en route Sigiriya to Polonnaruwa.
Common Kingfisher Alcedo atthis Common and widespread. Max. 5 in Ruhuna N.P.
Oriental (Black-backed) Dwarf Kingfisher Ceyx erithacus One heard at Kithulgala.
Stork-billed Kingfisher Halcyon capensis Max 3 at Embilipitiya and Sigiriya. Also recorded at Bundala N.P., Yodhawewa tank, Tissamaharama tank, Ruhuna N.P.
White-throated Kingfisher Halcyon smyrnensis Common and widespread. Max 25 around Tissamaharama and Deberawewa tanks.
Pied Kingfisher Ceryle rudis Max. 5 in Bundala N.P., also at Talangama tank and Ruhuna N.P.
Green Bee-eater Merops orientalis Common and widespread. Max. 70 in Ruhuna N.P.
Blue-tailed Bee-eater Merops philippinus Common and widespread. Max 30 in Ruhuna N.P.
Chestnut-headed Bee-eater Merops leschenaulti Max. 4 seen in Ruhuna N.P. and Sigiriya, also in Bundala N.P.
Pied Cuckoo Clamator jacobinus Max. 5 seen in Bundala N.P., also in Ruhuna N.P. and Sigiriya.
Chestnut-winged Cuckoo Clamator coromandus One seen in Bundala N.P.
Common Hawk Cuckoo Hierococcyx varius One heard at Hunas Falls Hotel garden.
Grey-bellied Cuckoo Cacomantis passerinus Max 12 in Bundala N.P. Also at Udawalawe N.P., Lunugamvehera N.P., Ruhuna N.P. and Sigiriya.
'Fork-tailed' Drongo Cuckoo Surniculus [lugubris] dicruroides Two heard at Sigiriya.
Asian Koel Eudynamys scolopacea Common and widespread. Max. 12 in Ruhuna N.P.
Blue-faced Malkoha Phaenicophaeus viridirostris Two seen in Bundala N.P. and Sigiriya and singles in Udawalawe N.P. and Minneriya N.P.
Sirkeer Malkoha Phaenicophaeus leschenaultii One seen in Ruhuna N.P.
* Red-faced Malkoha Phaenicophaeus pyrrhocephalus Max. 6 at Sinharaja. Globally threatened.
Southern Coucal Centropus [sinensis] parroti Common and widespread. Max. 4 at Kithulgala.
* Green-billed Coucal Centropus chlororhynchos Two seen at Kithulgala. Green-billed Coucal.
* Sri Lanka Hanging Parrot Loriculus beryllinus Heard or seen in the wet zone at Sinharaja, Kithulgala and Pulni Aramba, max. 8 at Sinharaja and Kithulgala. Also an unusual sighting of 4 in the dry zone at Udawalawe N.P.
Alexandrine Parakeet Psittacula eupatria Max. 5 seen at Yodhawewa tank, also in Udawalawe N.P., Bundala N.P., Tissamaharama, Ruhuna, Pulni Aramba, Sigiriya and Polonnaruwa.
Rose-ringed Parakeet Psittacula krameri Common and widespread. Max. 250 flying to roost over Deberawewa tank.
Plum-headed Parakeet Psittacula cyanocephala Five in Udawalawe N.P.
* Layard's Parakeet Psittacula calthropae Max. 20 at Pulni Aramba, also recorded at Sinharaja and Hunas Falls Hotel garden.
Indian Swiftlet Collocalia unicolor Common and widespread. Max. 25 over Ruhuna N.P.
Brown-backed Needletail Hirundapus giganteus Three over Sinharaja and one in Ruhuna N.P.
Asian Palm Swift Cypsiurus balasiensis Fairly common and well distributed, near palm trees. Max 10 at Tissamaharama.
House (Little) Swift Apus affinis Fairly common and well distributed. Max. 60 over Ruhuna N.P.
Crested Treeswift Hemiprocne coronata Max. 25 seen in Ruhuna N.P., also in Bundala N.P., Sigiriya and Minneriya N.P.
Collared (Indian) Scops Owl Otus bakkamoena Two heard at Sigiriya.
Brown Fish Owl Ketupa zeylonensis One heard at Hunas Falls Hotel garden.
* Chestnut-backed Owlet Glaucidium castanonotum A pair seen at Kithulgala, two heard at Sinharaja and one heard at Pulni Aramba. Globally near-threatened.
Sri Lanka Frogmouth Batrachostomus moniliger An adult male and immature seen roosting at Sinharaja, two heard at Sinharaja and one heard at Kithulgala.
Jerdon's Nightjar Caprimulgus atripennis Five seen at Sigiriya.
Indian Nightjar Caprimulgus asiaticus Max. 4 seen in Ruhuna N.P., also one at Sigiriya.
Rock Pigeon Columba livia Common and widespread.
* Sri Lanka Wood Pigeon Columba torringtoni Five seen in Horton Plains N.P.
Spotted Dove Streptopelia chinensis Common and widespread. Max. 50 in Ruhuna N.P. Globally threatened.
Emerald Dove Chalcophaps indica Max. 4 seen at Sinharaja, Kithulgala and Sigiriya, also one at Pulni Aramba.
Orange-breasted Green Pigeon Treron bicinctus Max. 30 in Ruhuna N.P., also seen in Udawalawe N.P.
* Sri Lanka (Pompadour) Green Pigeon Treron pompadora Max. 7 seen at Sigiriya, also at Sinharaja, Kithulgala and Minneriya N.P.
Green Imperial Pigeon Ducula aenea Common and widespread. Max. 10 in Ruhuna N.P.
White-breasted Waterhen Amaurornis phoenicurus Common and widespread. Max. 20 at Talangama tank and Deberawewa wetland.
Purple Swamphen Porphyrio porphyrio Max. 30 at Deberawewa wetland, also at Talangama tank, Bundala N.P., Ruhuna N.P. and Sigiriya.
Common Moorhen Gallinula chloropus Max. 5 at Deberawewa wetland, also at Talangama tank and Bundala N.P.
Common Coot Fulica atra Five at Tissamaharama tank.
Pintail Snipe Gallinago stenura Max. 12 seen at Minneriya N.P., also at Talangama tank, Deberawewa wetland, Bundala N.P. and Ruhuna N.P.
Common Snipe Gallinago gallinago One in Minneriya N.P.
Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus Singles on coast at Ruhuna N.P. and Negombo.
Eurasian Curlew Numenius arquata One at Negombo.
Common Redshank Tringa totanus Max. 40 seen at Bundala N.P., also at Yodhawewa tank, Deberawewa wetland and Ruhuna N.P.
Marsh Sandpiper Tringa stagnatilis Max. 200 seen at Yodhawewa tank, also around Tissamaharama, Deberawewa wetland, and Bundala N.P.
Common Greenshank Tringa nebularia Max. 15 seen in Ruhuna N.P., also at Tissamaharama, Deberawewa wetland and Bundala N.P.
Wood Sandpiper Tringa glareola Max. 15 seen at Yodhawewa tank, also at Deberawewa wetland and Ruhuna N.P.
Common Sandpiper Actitis hypoleucos Fairly common and widespread. Max. 15 seen in Ruhuna N.P.
Ruddy Turnstone Arenaria interpres Max. 10 seen in Bundala N.P., also four in Ruhuna N.P.
Little Stint Calidris minuta Max. 200 saltpans near Ruhuna N.P., also seen in the park, Bundala N.P. and Yodhawewa tank.
Long-toed Stint Calidris subminuta Two seen in flooded paddyfields near Deberawewa.
Curlew Sandpiper Calidris ferruginea Max. 300 seen on saltpans near Ruhuna N.P., also seen in the park, Deberawewa wetland, Bundala N.P. and Yodhawewa tank.
Pheasant-tailed Jacana Hydrophasianus chirurgus Max. 300 seen at Yodhawewa tank and adjacent flooded paddyfields, also at Talangama tank, around Tissamaharama, Deberawewa, Bundala, Ruhuna N.P. Sigiriya and Polonnaruwa.
Great Thick-knee Esacus recurvirostris Max. 42 together at saltpans near Ruhuna N.P., also seen in the park and at Bundala N.P.
Black-winged Stilt Himantopus himantopus Max. 500 at Yodhawewa tank and adjacent flooded fields, also seen at Talangama, around Tissamaharama, Bundala, Ruhuna N.P. and nearby saltpans.
Pacific Golden Plover Pluvialis fulva Ten seen in Ruhuna N.P.
Grey Plover Pluvialis squatarola Max. 6 seen at saltpans near Ruhuna N.P., also in the park and at Bundala N.P.
Little Ringed Plover Charadrius dubius Max. 4 seen in Ruhuna N.P., also at nearby saltpans and Deberawewa.
Kentish Plover Charadrius alexandrinus Max. 60 seen in Bundala N.P., also at Ruhuna N.P.
Lesser Sand Plover Charadrius mongolus Max. 100 seen at saltpans near Ruhuna N.P., also in flooded paddyfields at Deberawewa, Bundala N.P. and Yodhawewa.
Yellow-wattled Lapwing Vanellus malabaricus Max. 6 in Ruhuna N.P., also at Weerawira tank.
Red-wattled Lapwing Vanellus indicus Common and widespread. Max. 30 in Ruhuna N.P.
Pomarine Jaeger Stercorarius pomarinus One immature watched and photographed on bank of a salt pan in Bundala N.P. on 9 December before it flew south. A cyclone had passed through the east coast of Sri Lanka the previous day.
Brown-headed Gull Larus brunnicephalus Four in Bundala N.P. and one at Negombo.
Gull-billed Tern Gelochelidon nilotica Max. 200 seen in Bundala N.P., also at Deberawewa wetland, Weerawira and Yodhawewa tanks, Ruhuna N.P. and nearby saltpans and Negombo.
Caspian Tern Sterna caspia Max. 50 in Bundala N.P., also Yodhawewa and Weerawira tanks, Ruhuna N.P. and nearby saltpans and Negombo.
Lesser Crested Tern Sterna bengalensis One seen in Bundala N.P.
Great Crested Tern Sterna bergii Max. 150 seen in Bundala N.P., also in Ruhuna N.P. and nearby saltpans and Negombo.
Roseate Tern Sterna dougallii Flock of 50 following a fishing boat at Negombo.
Common Tern Sterna hirundo Flock of 70 following a fishing boat at Negombo.
Little Tern Sterna albifrons Max. 500 seen in Bundala N.P., also at Weerawira, Yodhawewa and Tissamaharama tanks and Negombo.
Bridled Tern Sterna anaethetus One flying south at Negombo on 20 Dec.
Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hybridus Max. 200 flying south at Negombo, 100 in Bundala N.P. and 100 at Yodhawewa tank, also recorded Talangama tank, Deberawewa, Weerawira and Tissamaharama tanks, Sigiriya, Minneriya and Parakrama Samudra.
White-winged Tern Chlidonias leucopterus Max. three seen in Bundala N.P. and over flooded fields at Deberawewa, also at Tissamaharama and Weerawira tanks and Ruhuna N.P.
Oriental Honey-buzzard Pernis ptilorhyncus Singles in Bundala N.P. and Horton Plains N.P.
Black-shouldered Kite Elanus caeruleus Max. 3 seen in Udawalawe N.P., and singles in Ruhuna N.P. and Horton Plains N.P.
Brahminy Kite Haliastur indus Fairly common and widespread. Max. 8 seen in Ruhuna N.P.
White-bellied Sea Eagle Haliaeetus leucogaster Max. 4+ seen in Minneriya N.P., also seen in Udawalawe N.P., Embilipitiya, Yodhawewa, Ruhuna N.P. and Parakrama Samudra.
Grey-headed Fish Eagle Ichthyophaga ichthyaetus Max. 3 seen in Ruhuna N.P., also at Deberawewa wetland and Minneriya N.P. Globally near-threatened.
Crested Serpent Eagle Spilornis cheela Two seen at Sinharaja, Udawalawe N.P. and in the central highlands between Nuwara Eliya and Kithulgala, also one in Ruhuna N.P.
Crested Goshawk Accipiter trivirgatus One seen at Sinharaja.
Shikra Accipiter badius Widespread. Max. 2 seen en route Talangama to Sinharaja and in Ruhuna N.P.
Besra Accipiter virgatus One seen at Sinharaja and one heard at Kithulgala.
Himalayan Buzzard Buteo burmanicus One in Horton Plains N.P.
Black Eagle Ictinaetus malayensis Max. 4 seen Talangama to Sinharaja and 3 in central highlands en route from Nuwara Eliya to Kithulgala.
Crested Hawk Eagle Spizaetus cirrhatus Max. four seen in Udawalawe N.P.. One at unusually high altitude of 2100 m+ above Nuwara Eliya, also in Ruhuna N.P., Sigiriya and one en route from Sigiriya to Negombo.
Mountain Hawk Eagle Spizaetus nipalensis Two sightings of two at Sinharaja.
Common Kestrel Falco tinnunculus One in Ruhuna N.P.
Amur Falcon Falco amurensis Two seen in Ruhuna N.P. on 11 December.
Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus A pair seen in Ruhuna N.P. and a pair around Sigiriya rock.
Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis Max. two seen at Talangama tank, Ruhuna N.P., Horton Plains N.P. and Parakrama Samudra, also singles at Bundala N.P. and Weerawira tank.
Darter Anhinga melanogaster Max. 30 in Ruhuna N.P., also singles at Deberawewa wetland, Bundala N.P. and Weerawira tank. Globally near-threatened.
Little Cormorant Phalacrocorax niger Common and widespread. Max. 400 at Tissamaharama tank.
Indian Cormorant Phalacrocorax fuscicollis Max. 800 seen flying to roost over Deberawewa wetland, also at Tissamaharama, Ruhuna N.P., Parakrama Samudra and Sigiriya.
Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo One seen on Parakrama Samudra.
Little Egret Egretta garzetta Common and widespread. Max. 80 seen in day at Bundala N.P., Yodhawewa, Deberawewa, Tissamaharama and Weerawira.
Grey Heron Ardea cinerea Max. 30 seen in day at Bundala N.P., Yodhawewa, Deberawewa and Tissamaharama, also in Ruhuna N.P., Minneriya N.P. and Sigiriya.
Purple Heron Ardea purpurea Max. 10 seen in day in Bundala N.P., Yodhawewa, Deberawewa and Tissamaharama, also at Talangama, Ruhuna N.P., Minneriya N.P. and Sigiriya.
Great Egret Casmerodius albus Common and widespread. Max. 100 in day at Bundala N.P., Yodhawewa, Deberawewa, Tissamaharama and Weerawira.
Intermediate Egret Mesophoyx intermedia Max. 5 in Ruhuna N.P., also singles at Talangama tank, Yodhawewa and Minneriya N.P.
Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis Common and widespread. Max. 500 in day at Bundala N.P., Yodhawewa, Deberawewa, Tissamaharama and Weerawira.
Indian Pond Heron Ardeola grayii Common and widespread. Max. 40 in day at Bundala N.P., Yodhawewa, Deberawewa, Tissamaharama and Weerawira.
Black-crowned Night Heron Nycticorax nycticorax Max. 12 at Deberawewa wetland and Talangama tank, also in Bundala N.P., Yodhawewa and Tissamaharama tanks, and Ruhuna N.P.
Yellow Bittern Ixobrychus sinensis Max. 3 at Talangama tank.
Black Bittern Dupetor flavicollis Max. 4 at Talangama tank, also three at Deberawewa wetland and one in Ruhuna N.P.
Black-headed Ibis Threskiornis melanocephalus Max. 80 over Deberawewa wetland and 80 in day at Bundala N.P., Yodhawewa and Deberawewa, also at Ruhuna N.P., Parakrama Samudra and Minneriya N.P. Globally near-threatened.
Eurasian Spoonbill Platalea leucorodia Max. 20 at Ruhuna N.P., also in Udawalawe N.P., Deberawewa and Bundala N.P.
Spot-billed Pelican Pelecanus philippensis Max. 20 in Minneriya N.P., also at Talangama, Udawalawe N.P., Tissamaharama, Deberawewa, Bundala N.P. and Parakrama Samudra. Globally threatened.
Painted Stork Mycteria leucocephala Max. 50 in Bundala N.P., also at Deberawewa, Tissamaharama, Yodhawewa and Ruhuna N.P. Globally near-threatened.
Asian Openbill Anastomus oscitans Max. 20 in Ruhuna N.P., also at Talangama tank, Tissamaharama, Deberawewa, Sigiriya, Bundala N.P. and Minneriya N.P.
Woolly-necked Stork Ciconia episcopus Three in Ruhuna N.P. and two in Minneriya N.P.
Black-necked Stork Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus Two in Ruhuna N.P. Globally near-threatened.
Lesser Adjutant Leptoptilos javanicus Singles in Ruhuna N.P. and Minneriya N.P. Globally threatened.
Indian Pitta Pitta brachyura Max. 8 heard Ruhuna N.P. at dawn, one seen in Victoria Park, Nuwara Eliya, also heard at Lunugamvehera N.P. and Sigiriya.
Jerdon's Leafbird Chloropsis jerdoni Max. 3 seen at Deberawewa, also at Udawalawe N.P. and Sigiriya.
Golden-fronted Leafbird Chloropsis aurifrons Singles at Sinharaja and Kithulgala.
Brown Shrike Lanius cristatus Fairly common and widespread. Max. 15 seen in Ruhuna N.P.
* Sri Lanka Blue Magpie Urocissa ornata Max. 6 at Sinharaja. Globally threatened.
House Crow Corvus splendens Common and widespread except in the hills. Max. 100 at Negombo.
Indian Jungle Crow Corvus culminatus Common and widespread. Max. 70 in day Sigiriya and Polonnaruwa.
Ashy Woodswallow Artamus fuscus Max.8 at Deberawewa, also at Talangama, Tissamaharama, Yodhawewa and Sigiriya.
Black-hooded Oriole Oriolus xanthornus Fairly common and widespread, except in hills. Max. 12 in day Sigiriya and Polonnaruwa.
Large Cuckooshrike Coracina macei One at Sigiriya.
Black-headed Cuckooshrike Coracina melanoptera Max. 2 at Sigiriya, also singles at Deberawewa, Ruhuna N.P., Hunas Falls Hotel and Sigiriya.
Small Minivet Pericrocotus cinnamomeus Max.10 seen at Sigiriya, also at Ruhuna N.P.
Orange Minivet Pericrocotus flammeus Max. 10 seen at Sinharaja, also at Kithulgala and Hunas Falls Hotel garden.
Bar-winged Flycatcher-shrike Hemipus picatus Max. 3 at Sinharaja, also at Kithulgala.
White-browed Fantail Rhipidura aureola Max. 4 in Ruhuna N.P., also in Udawalawe N.P. Lunugamavehera N.P., Bundala N.P. and Sigiriya.
Black Drongo Dicrurus macrocercus Two at Sigiriya.
Ashy Drongo Dicrurus leucophaeus Max. 4 seen in Ruhuna N.P., also in Minneriya N.P.
White-bellied Drongo Dicrurus caerulescens Max. 10 at Talangama, also in Udawalawe N.P., Ruhuna N.P., Kithulgala, Pulni Aramba, Sigiriya and Polonnaruwa.
* Sri Lanka Crested Drongo Dicrurus lophorhinus Max. 10 seen at Sinharaja, also at Kithulgala.
Black-naped Monarch Hypothymis azurea Singles at Sinharaja.
Asian Paradise-flycatcher Terpsiphone paradisi Widespread. Max. 5 seen in Ruhuna N.P.
Common Iora Aegithina tiphia Max. 8 seen in Ruhuna N.P., also at Sinharaja, Lunugamvehera N.P., Bundala N.P., Tissamaharama, Sigiriya and Minneriya N.P.
* Sri Lanka Woodshrike Tephrodornis affinis Max. 2 seen at Deberawewa and Sigiriya, also in Ruhuna N.P. and Minneriya N.P.
* Sri Lanka Whistling Thrush Myophonus blighi One male seen near Nuwara Eliya and 3 heard Horton Plains N.P. Globally threatened.
Pied Thrush Zoothera wardii Two males seen Victoria Park, Nuwara Eliya.
Orange-headed Thrush Zoothera citrina One male at Sigiriya.
* Spot-winged Thrush Zoothera spiloptera Max. 6 at Sinharaja, also one heard at Kithulgala. Globally near-threatened.
* Sri Lanka Scaly Thrush Zoothera imbricata Two seen at Sinharaja.
Indian Blackbird Turdus simillimus One male in Horton Plains N.P.
Asian Brown Flycatcher Muscicapa dauurica Singles at Deberawewa tank, Ruhuna N.P. and Polonnaruwa.
Brown-breasted Flycatcher Muscicapa muttui Max. 5 at Sinharaja, also in Ruhuna N.P. and Kithulgala.
Kashmir Flycatcher Ficedula subrubra Two in Horton Plains N.P. Globally threatened.
* Dull-blue Flycatcher Eumyias sordida One singing Horton Plains N.P. and a male seen near Nuwara Eliya. Globally near-threatened.
Tickell's Blue Flycatcher Cyornis tickelliae Max. 3 at Sinharaja, also in Ruhuna N.P., Horton Plains N.P., Nuwara Eliya, Kithulgala and Sigiriya.
Grey-headed Canary Flycatcher Culicicapa ceylonensis Max. 3 seen in Horton Plains N.P., also at Nuwara Eliya and Kithulgala.
Indian Blue Robin Luscinia brunnea Max. 2 at Nuwara Eliya, also singles seen in Hunas Falls Hotel garden and at Sigiriya.
Oriental Magpie Robin Copsychus saularis Widespread. Max 8 at Talangama.
White-rumped Shama Copsychus malabaricus Max. 4 in Ruhuna N.P., also at Sigiriya.
Indian Robin Saxicoloides fulicata Max. 20 seen in Ruhuna N.P., also at Talangama, Udawalawe N.P., Sigiriya, Minneriya N.P. and Polonnaruwa.
Pied Bushchat Saxicola caprata Max. 15 seen in Horton Plains N.P., also Nuwara Eliya.
* White-faced Starling Sturnus albofrontatus Max. 3 in Sinharaja. Globally threatened.
Brahminy Starling Sturnus pagodarum Three in Ruhuna N.P.
Rosy Starling Sturnus roseus Max. 30 in Ruhuna N.P., also 25 in Bundala N.P.
Common Myna Acridotheres tristis Common and widespread. Max. 50 in day.
Lesser Hill Myna Gracula indica Singles heard in Kandy and at Pulni Aramba.
* Sri Lanka Myna Gracula ptilogenys Max. 5 seen at Sinharaja. Globally near-threatened.
Velvet-fronted Nuthatch Sitta frontalis One seen at Sinharaja.
Great Tit Parus major Max. 4 in Horton Plains N.P., also at Nuwara Eliya, Pulni Aramba and Hunas Falls Hotel garden.
Sand Martin Riparia riparia Two in Bundala N.P.
Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica Locally very common, max. 200 in day in Tissamaharama area.
Hill Swallow Hirundo domicola Max. 15 in Hunas Falls Hotel garden, also two near Horton Plains N.P. visitor centre.
Red-rumped Swallow Hirundo daurica One at Dambulla caves.
* Sri Lanka Swallow Hirundo hyperythra Max. 5 in Hunas Falls Hotel garden, also at Sinharaja, Udawalawe N.P., Ruhuna N.P. and Sigiriya.
* Black-capped Bulbul Pycnonotus melanicterus Max. 8 seen at Sinharaja, also in Ruhuna N.P. and Kithulgala.
Red-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer Common and widespread. Max. 50 in day in Ruhuna N.P. and around Tissamaharama.
* Yellow-eared Bulbul Pycnonotus penicillatus Max. 25 seen in Horton Plains N.P., also at and around Nuwara Eliya. Globally near-threatened.
White-browed Bulbul Pycnonotus luteolus Max. 20 seen in Ruhuna N.P., also at Talangama, Bundala N.P., Tissamaharama, Minneriya N.P. and Sigiriya.
Yellow-browed Bulbul Iole indica Max. 15 at Sinharaja, also at Kithulgala.
Square-tailed Black Bulbul Hypsipetes ganeesa Max. 6 seen at Sinharaja, also at Kithulgala.
Zitting Cisticola Cisticola juncidis Abundant in Minneriya N.P. where max 150 seen, also in Horton Plains N.P., Udawalawe N.P., Deberawewa, Yodhawewa, and Ruhuna N.P.
Grey-breasted Prinia Prinia hodgsonii Two seen at Sigiriya.
Jungle Prinia Prinia sylvatica Max.3 seen in Udawalawe N.P., also at Sigiriya.
Ashy Prinia Prinia socialis Max. 10 in Udawalawe N.P., also in Minneriya N.P. and Sigiriya.
Plain Prinia Prinia inornata Max. 10 at Deberawewa, also at Talangama, Udawalawe N.P., Bundala N.P., Yodhawewa, Ruhuna N.P., Minneriya N.P. and Sigiriya.
Oriental White-eye Zosterops palpebrosus One seen at Sinharaja and heard at Kithulgala.
* Sri Lanka White-eye Zosterops ceylonensis Max. 30 seen in Horton Plains N.P., also at Nuwara Eliya and Sinharaja.
* Sri Lanka Bush Warbler Bradypterus (Elaphrornis) palliseri One seen and 7 others heard in Horton Plains N.P. Globally threatened.
Blyth's Reed Warbler Acrocephalus dumetorum Max. 2 at Sigiriya, also singles in Udawalawe, Bundala N.P., Ruhuna N.P., Horton Plains N.P. and Nuwara Eliya.
Clamorous Reed Warbler Acrocephalus (stentoreus) brunnescens One heard in Bundala N.P.
Common Tailorbird Orthotomus sutorius Fairly common and widespread. Max. 10 in Ruhuna N.P.
Green Warbler Phylloscopus nitidus Fairly common and widespread. Max. 10 in Horton Plains N.P.,
Large-billed Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus magnirostris Max. 2 at Sinharaja and Kithulgala, also singles in Lunugamvehera N.P., Ruhuna N.P. and Kithulgala.
* Ashy-headed Laughingthrush Garrulax cinereifrons Max. 30 at Sinharaja. Globally threatened.
* Brown-capped Babbler Pellorneum fuscocapillus Max. 2 seen in Ruhuna N.P. and Sigiriya, also two heard in Minneriya N.P., singles at Sinharaja and Lunugamvehera N.P.
* Sri Lanka Scimitar Babbler Pomatorhinus [schisticeps] melanurus Max.5 in Horton Plains N.P., also seen at Sinharaja including a pair collecting nest material, and at Nuwara Eliya.
Tawny-bellied Babbler Dumetia hyperythra Max. 6 seen at Sigiriya, also at Deberawewa, Yodhawewa and Tissamaharama.
Dark-fronted Babbler Rhopocichla atriceps Max. 15 seen at Sinharaja, also in Ruhuna N.P., Horton Plains N.P. and Kithulgala,
Yellow-eyed Babbler Chrysomma sinense Max. 8 seen at Udawalawe N.P., also in Bundala N.P., Yodhawewa and Tissamaharama.
* Orange-billed Babbler Turdoides rufescens Max. 25 seen at Sinharaja, also in Horton Plains N.P. and at Kithulgala. Globally near-threatened.
Yellow-billed Babbler Turdoides affinis Common and widespread. Max. 40 in Ruhuna N.P.
Jerdons Bushlark Mirafra affinis Max. 20 in and around Udawalawe N.P., also in Ruhuna N.P.
Ashy-crowned Sparrow Lark Eremopterix griseus Max. 40 in and around Udawalawe N.P., also at Weerawira and Ruhuna N.P.
Oriental Skylark Alauda gulgula Four seen in Bundala N.P.
Thick-billed Flowerpecker Dicaeum agile One seen at Sigiriya.
Pale-billed Flowerpecker Dicaeum erythrorynchos Max. 5 in Horton Plains N.P., also at Sinharaja, Tissamaharama, Ruhuna N.P., Nuwara Eliya, Kithulgala and Sigiriya.
* Legge's Flowerpecker Dicaeum vincens Max. 10 at Sinharaja. Globally near-threatened.
Purple-rumped Sunbird Nectarinia zeylonica Common and widespread. Max. 20 in Ruhuna N.P.
Purple Sunbird Nectarinia asiatica Fairly common and widespread. Max. 10 in Ruhuna N.P.
Loten's Sunbird Nectarinia lotenia Max. 3 at Kithulgala, also singles at Talangama and Sinharaja.
House Sparrow Passer domesticus Max. 50 at Nuwara Eliya, also near Bundala N.P., Ruhuna N.P., and Kithulgala.
Forest Wagtail Dendronanthus indicus Max. 5 seen in Ruhuna N.P., also 4 in Victoria Park, Nuwara Eliya.
(Western) Yellow Wagtail Motacilla flava Two in Udawalawe N.P.
Grey Wagtail Motacilla cinerea Max.5 in Horton Plains N.P., also at Nuwara Eliya, Sinharaja and Hunas Falls Hotel.
Paddyfield Pipit Anthus rufulus Max. 15 in Bundala N.P., also in Udawalawe N.P., Weerawira, Ruhuna N.P., Horton Plains N.P. and Sigiriya.
Baya Weaver Ploceus philippinus Max. 5 seen at Deberawewa at nesting colony and one in Udawalawe N.P.
Indian Silverbill Lonchura malabarica Two seen in Bundala N.P. and two in Ruhuna N.P.
White-rumped Munia Lonchura striata Max. 6 seen in Minneriya N.P., also at Talangama and between Sinharaja and Udawalawe N.P.
Scaly-breasted Munia Lonchura punctulata Max. 30 seen at Deberawewa, also at Talangama, Udawalawe, Bundala N.P., Ruhuna N.P., Nuwara Eliya, Sigiriya and Minneriya N.P.
Tricoloured Munia Lonchura malacca Max. 60 seen in Udawalawe N.P., also in Bundala N.P. and Minneriya N.P.
Indian Flying-fox Pteropus giganteus Talangama: 3 December; Sinharaja-Udawalawe: 2 on 7 December; Deberawewa: 200 on 8 December
Horseshoe bat Rhinolophus sp. Sinharaja: 4 December
* Toque Macaque Macaca sinica Sinharaja: 2 on 4 December; Udawalawe: 1 on 7 December, 2 on 8 December; Bundala: 15 on 9 December; Ruhuna: 2 on 10 December; Ruhuna-Nuwara Eliya: 2 on 12 December; Kandy: 16 December;
Sigiriya: 18 December, 19 December
Tufted Grey Langur Semnopithecus priam Udawalawe: 1 on 7 December;
Bundala: 40 on 9 December; Ruhuna: 2 on 10 December, 60 on 11 December, 10 on 12 December; Sigiriya: 18 December, 19 December, 5 on 20 December
* Purple-faced Leaf Monkey Presbytis vetulus Talangama: (western race) 4 December; Sinharaja: (southern race) 4 December, 10 on 5 December, 10 on 6 December, heard on 7 December; Horton Plains: (montane race) 1 on 13 December;
Nuwara Eliya: (montane race) 2 on 14 December; Sigiriya: 18 December
Golden Jackal Canis aureus
Ruhuna: 1 on 10 December, 6 on 11 December
Grey Mongoose Herpestes edwardsii
Yodhawewa: 1 on 9 December; Ruhuna: 1 on 11 December; Sigiriya: 2 on 20 December
Ruddy Mongoose Herpestes smithii
Udawalawe: 1 on 7 December; Ruhuna: 3 on 10 December, 10 on 11 December;
Minneriya: 1 on 19 December; Sigiriya: 1 on 20 December
Brown Mongoose Herpestes brachyurus
Hunas Falls: 5 on 17 December
Jungle Cat Felis chaus
Udawalawe: 1 on 7 December
Leopard Panthera pardus
Ruhuna: 2 on 10 December
Asian Elephant Elephas maximus
Udawalawe: 15 on 7 December; Ruhuna: 12 on 10 December, 30 on 11 December, 1 on 12 December; Minneriya: 5 on 19 December
Wild Boar Sus scrofa
Ruhuna: 15 on 10 December, 10 on 11 December, 1 on 12 December
Spotted Deer Axis axis
Ruhuna: 30 on 10 December, 60 on 11 December
Sambar Cervus unicolor
Sinharaja: tracks on 5 December; Ruhuna: 1 on 10 December, 2 on 11 December; Horton Plains: 1 on 13 December
Water Buffalo Bubalus arnee/bubalis
Udawalawe: many feral animals 7 December; Ruhuna: many feral animals 10-11 December
Indian Palm Squirrel Funambulus palmarum
Udawalawe: 7 December, 8 December; Ruhuna: 10 December, 11 December, 1 on 12 December; Hunas Falls: 10 on 17 December; Sigiriya: 20 December; Negombo: 20 December
Dusky Striped Squirrel Funambulus sublineatus
Sinharaja: 2 on 6 December; Nuwara Eliya: 1 heard on 12 December; Horton Plains: 4 heard on 13 December
Grizzled Giant Squirrel Ratufa macroura
Sinharaja: 1 on 5 December, 3 on 6 December; Ruhuna: 1 heard on 11 December; Sigiriya: 1 on 18 December, 1 on 20 December
Black-naped Hare Lepus nigricollis
Ruhuna: 3 on 10 December, 6 on 11 December; Minneriya: 2 on 19 December
Green Vine Snake Ahaetulla nasuta
Green Forest Lizard Calotes calotes
Green Garden Lizard Calotes versicolor
Black-lipped Lizard Calotes nigrilabris
Sri Lankan Kangaroo Lizard Otocryptis wiegmanni
Asian House Gecko Hemidactylus frenatus
Common Skink Mabuya carinata
Bengal Monitor Varanus bengalensis
Water Monitor Varanus salvator
Mugger Crocodile Crocodylus palustris
Spotted Black Turtle Melanochelys trijuga
Star Tortoise Geochelone elegans
Indian Softshell Turtle Lissemys punctata
Cyan Five-fingered Frog Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis
Six-toed Green Frog Euphlyctis hexadactylus
Common Paddyfield Frog Limnonectes limnocharis
* Sri Lankan Wart Frog Lankanectes corrugatus
Common House Toad Bufo melanostictus
* Sri Lankan Rice Frog Microhyla zeylanica
Blue Glassy Tiger Ideopsis similis
Dark Blue Tiger Tirumala septentrionis
Plain Tiger Danaus chrysippus
Common Indian Crow Euploea core
Ceylon Tree Nymph Idea iasonia
White Four-ring Ypthima ceylonica
Common Leopard Phalanta phalantha
Chocolate Soldier Junonia iphita
Peacock Pansy Junonia almana
Blue Pansy Junonia orithya
Great Eggfly Hypolimnas bolina
Danaid Eggfly Hypolimnas misippus
Common Sailor Neptis hylas
Commander Moduza procris
Tawny Coster Telchinia violae
Common Gull Cepora nerissa
Common Jezebel Delias eucharis
Striped Albatross Appias libythea
White Orange-tip Ixias marianne
Yellow Orange-tip Ixias pyrene
Psyche Leptosia nina
Common Bluebottle Graphium sarpedon
Tailed Jay Graphium agamemnon
Ceylon Blue Mormon Papilio polymnestor
Lime Butterfly Papilio demoleus
Blue Admiral Kaniska caniace
Crimson Rose Pachliopta hector
Grass yellow spp. Eurema spp.